Anionic redox chemistry has emerged as a new paradigm to design higher-energy lithium ion-battery cathode materials such as Li-rich layered oxides. However, they suffer from voltage fade, large hysteresis and sluggish kinetics, which originate intriguingly from the anionic redox activity itself. To fundamentally understand these issues, we decided to act on the ligand by designing new Li-rich layered sulfides Li1.33 – 2y/3Ti0.67 – y/3FeyS2, among which the y = 0.3 member shows sustained reversible capacities of ~245 mAh g−1 due to cumulated cationic (Fe2+/3+) and anionic (S2−/Sn−, n < 2) redox processes. Moreover, its negligible initial cycle irreversibility, mitigated voltage fade upon long cycling, low voltage hysteresis and fast kinetics compare positively with its Li-rich oxide analogues. Moving from the oxygen ligand to the sulfur ligand thus partially alleviates the practical bottlenecks affecting anionic redox, although it penalizes the redox potential and energy density. Overall, these sulfides provide chemical clues to improve the holistic performance of anionic redox electrodes, which may guide us to ultimately exploit the energy benefits of oxygen redox.
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The authors declare that the main data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article and its Supplementary Information. Extra data are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.
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S.S. thanks the Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E) for funding of a PhD. J.-M.T. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under (FP/2014)/ERC grant–project 670116-ARPEMA. Use of the 11-BM mail service of the APS at Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The sXAS and mRIXS experiments at BL8.0.1 used resources of the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. V. Pumjakushin is acknowledged for his help on neutron diffraction experiment at SINQ. The authors thank M. Saubanère and M.-L. Doublet for fruitful discussions and the laboratory Chimie Théorique Methodes and Modélisaion (CTMM) at the Institut Claude Gerhardt Montpellier (ICGM) for computational facilities. J.C. and H.L. were supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. DMR-1809372.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Saha, S., Assat, G., Sougrati, M.T. et al. Exploring the bottlenecks of anionic redox in Li-rich layered sulfides. Nat Energy 4, 977–987 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0493-0
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