Carbonate electrolytes are commonly used in commercial non-aqueous Li-ion batteries. However, the high affinity between the solvents and the ions and high flammability of the carbonate electrolytes limits the battery operation temperature window to −20 to + 50 °C and the voltage window to 0.0 to 4.3 V. Here, we tame the affinity between solvents and Li ions by dissolving fluorinated electrolytes into highly fluorinated non-polar solvents. In addition to their non-flammable characteristic, our electrolytes enable high electrochemical stability in a wide voltage window of 0.0 to 5.6 V, and high ionic conductivities in a wide temperature range from −125 to + 70 °C. We show that between −95 and + 70 °C, the electrolytes enable LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes to achieve high Coulombic efficiencies of >99.9%, and the aggressive Li anodes and the high-voltage (5.4 V) LiCoMnO4 to achieve Coulombic efficiencies of >99.4% and 99%, respectively. Even at −85 °C, the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 || Li battery can still deliver ~50% of its room-temperature capacity.
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This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under award number DEEE0008202. The authors acknowledge the University of Maryland supercomputing resources (http://hpcc.umd.edu) made available for conducting the research reported in this paper.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary notes, Tables 1–2 and Figs. 1–24.
Electric fan powered by the NCA || Li pouch cell using 1.28 M LiFSI-FEC/FEMC–D2 electrolyte at −95 °C.
Flammability test for the conventional 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC electrolyte.
Flammability test for the water-in-salt electrolyte.
Flammability test for the superelectrolyte (1.28 M LiFSI-FEC/FEMC–D2).
Flammability test for the Li3PS4 solid-state electrolyte.
Flammability test for the Li10GeP2S12 solid-state electrolyte.
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Fan, X., Ji, X., Chen, L. et al. All-temperature batteries enabled by fluorinated electrolytes with non-polar solvents. Nat Energy 4, 882–890 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0474-3
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