Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology is a viable alternative to conventional liquefied or compressed natural-gas storage. Many different porous materials have been considered for adsorptive, reversible methane storage, but fall short of the US Department of Energy targets (0.5 g g−1, 263 l l−1). Here, we prepare a flexible porous polymer, made from benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane in kilogram batches, that has a high methane working capacity of 0.625 g g−1 and 294 l l−1 when cycled between 5 and 100 bar pressure. We suggest that the flexibility provides rapid desorption and thermal management, while the hydrophobicity and the nature of the covalently bonded framework allow the material to tolerate harsh conditions. The polymer also shows an adsorbate memory effect, where a less adsorptive gas (N2) follows the isotherm profile of a high-capacity adsorbate (CO2), which is attributed to the thermal expansion caused by the adsorption enthalpy. The high methane capacity and memory effect make flexible porous polymers promising candidates for ANG technology.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) (nos NRF-2016R1A2B4011027, NRF-2017M3A7B4042140 and NRF-2017M3A7B4042235).
KAIST has filed a provisional patent application (10-2019-0058296) related to the new flexible porous polymers reported in this manuscript.
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Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Notes 1–3, Supplementary Figs. 1–35, Supplementary Tables 1–10 and Supplementary refs.