a, Diurnal performance of the perovskite solar cell (PSC) under simulated temperature (pink shaded area) and illumination intensity (green shaded area); real-world conditions (solid orange line) are compared to predicted efficiency from STC characterization (dashed orange line). Silicon solar cell performance is reported as a reference (real-world and predicted efficiencies indicated by solid and dashed blue lines, respectively). b, Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell as a function of temperature and intensity of sunlight, showing a lack of a clear trend for the temperature coefficient. SHJ, silicon heterojunction. Figure adapted from ref. 3, Springer Nature Limited.