In recent years, the major factors that determine commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology have been shifting from solar cell performance to stability, reproducibility, device upscaling and the prevention of lead (Pb) leakage from the module over the device service life. Here we simulate a realistic scenario in which perovskite modules with different encapsulation methods are mechanically damaged by a hail impact (modified FM 44787 standard) and quantitatively measure the Pb leakage rates under a variety of weather conditions. We demonstrate that the encapsulation method based on an epoxy resin reduces the Pb leakage rate by a factor of 375 compared with the encapsulation method based on a glass cover with an ultraviolet-cured resin at the module edges. The greater Pb leakage reduction of the epoxy resin encapsulation is associated with its optimal self-healing characteristics under the operating conditions and with its increased mechanical strength. These findings strongly suggest that perovskite photovoltaic products can be deployed with minimal Pb leakage if appropriate encapsulation is employed.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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This work was supported by funding from the Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, the OIST R&D Cluster Research Program, the OIST Proof of Concept (POC) Program, and JSPS KAKENHI Grant no. JP18K05266. We thank Y. Iinuma (the technician at OIST) for the ICP–MS measurements.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–14, Supplementary Tables 1–5, Supplementary Notes 1 and 2, and Supplementary references.
Mechanical strength of the ER polymers with different composition at 65 °C.
Mechanical strength of the ER polymers with different composition at 85 °C.
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Nature Energy (2019)