Challenges and opportunities towards fast-charging battery materials


Extreme fast charging, with a goal of 15 minutes recharge time, is poised to accelerate mass market adoption of electric vehicles, curb greenhouse gas emissions and, in turn, provide nations with greater energy security. However, the realization of such a goal requires research and development across multiple levels, with battery technology being a key technical barrier. The present-day high-energy lithium-ion batteries with graphite anodes and transition metal oxide cathodes in liquid electrolytes are unable to achieve the fast-charging goal without negatively affecting electrochemical performance and safety. Here we discuss the challenges and future research directions towards fast charging at the level of battery materials from mass transport, charge transfer and thermal management perspectives. Moreover, we highlight advanced characterization techniques to fundamentally understand the failure mechanisms of batteries during fast charging, which in turn would inform more rational battery designs.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Overview of the technical requirements for EV battery fast charging.
Fig. 2: Electrolyte mass transport limitations during fast charging and possible mitigation strategies.
Fig. 3: Electrode charge-transfer limitations during fast charging and some possible mitigation strategies.
Fig. 4: Battery thermal considerations during fast charging.
Fig. 5: Advanced characterization techniques to fundamentally understand the battery failure mechanisms during fast charging.


  1. 1.

    Karner, D., Garetson, T. & Francfort, J. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (Idaho National Laboratory, 2016);

  2. 2.

    Standard J1772: Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2017).

  3. 3.

    Howell, D. et al. Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment No. INL/EXT-17-41638 (US Department of Energy, 2017).

  4. 4.

    Ahmed, S. et al. Enabling fast charging — a battery technology gap assessment. J. Power Sources 367, 250–262 (2017). This work reviewed the developmental needs towards extreme fast charging at the battery cell and pack levels.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Keyser, M. et al. Enabling fast charging — battery thermal considerations. J. Power Sources 367, 228–236 (2017). This work reviewed thermal challenges with regards to extreme fast charging.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Meintz, A. et al. Enabling fast charging — vehicle considerations. J. Power Sources 367, 216–227 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Burnham, A. et al. Enabling fast charging — infrastructure and economic considerations. J. Power Sources 367, 237–249 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Goodenough, J. B. & Kim, Y. Challenges for rechargeable Li batteries. Chem. Mater. 22, 587–603 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nyman, A., Zavalis, T. G., Elger, R., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. Analysis of the polarization in a Li-ion battery cell by numerical simulations. J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, A1236–A1246 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Doyle, M., Fuller, T. F. & Newman, J. The importance of the lithium ion transference number in lithium/polymer cells. Electrochim. Acta 39, 2073–2081 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Gallagher, K. G. et al. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, A138–A149 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Logan, E. et al. A study of the physical properties of Li-ion battery electrolytes containing esters. J. Electrochem. Soc. 165, A21–A30 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Smart, M., Ratnakumar, B., Chin, K. & Whitcanack, L. Lithium-ion electrolytes containing ester cosolvents for improved low temperature performance. J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, A1361–A1374 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Smart, M., Ratnakumar, B. & Surampudi, S. Use of organic esters as cosolvents in electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance. J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, A361–A370 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Lagadec, M. F., Zahn, R. & Wood, V. Characterization and performance evaluation of lithium-ion battery separators. Nat. Energy 4, 16–25 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lee, H., Yanilmaz, M., Toprakci, O., Fu, K. & Zhang, X. A review of recent developments in membrane separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 3857–3886 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Diederichsen, K. M., McShane, E. J. & McCloskey, B. D. Promising routes to a high Li+ transference number electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. ACS Energy Lett. 2, 2563–2575 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Xu, K. Nonaqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-based rechargeable batteries. Chem. Rev. 104, 4303–4418 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Videa, M., Xu, W., Geil, B., Marzke, R. & Angell, C. A. High Li+ self-diffusivity and transport number in novel electrolyte solutions. J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, A1352–A1356 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Popovic, J. et al. High lithium transference number electrolytes containing tetratriflylpropene’s lithium salt. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9, 5116–5120 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Buss, H. G., Chan, S. Y., Lynd, N. A. & McCloskey, B. D. Nonaqueous polyelectrolyte solutions as liquid electrolytes with high lithium ion transference number and conductivity. ACS Energy Lett. 2, 481–487 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Schaefer, J. L., Yanga, D. A. & Archer, L. A. High lithium transference number electrolytes via creation of 3-dimensional, charged, nanoporous networks from dense functionalized nanoparticle composites. Chem. Mater. 25, 834–839 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Suo, L., Hu, Y.-S., Li, H., Armand, M. & Chen, L. A new class of solvent-in-salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries. Nat. Commun. 4, 1481 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Varzi, A., Raccichini, R., Passerini, S. & Scrosati, B. Challenges and prospects of the role of solid electrolytes in the revitalization of lithium metal batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 17251–17259 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Kato, Y. et al. High-power all-solid-state batteries using sulfide superionic conductors. Nat. Energy 1, 16030 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kerman, K., Luntz, A., Viswanathan, V., Chiang, Y.-M. & Chen, Z. Practical challenges hindering the development of solid state Li ion batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 164, A1731–A1744 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Hitz, G. T. et al. High-rate lithium cycling in a scalable trilayer Li-garnet-electrolyte architecture. Mater. Today 22, 50–57 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Zhang, H. et al. Single lithium-ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes: advances and perspectives. Chem. Soc. Rev. 46, 797–815 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Aetukuri, N. B. et al. Flexible ion-conducting composite membranes for lithium batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500265 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Porcarelli, L. et al. Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium metal polymer batteries that operate at ambient temperature. ACS Energy Lett. 1, 678–682 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Oh, H. et al. Poly(arylene ether)-based single-ion conductors for lithium-ion batteries. Chem. Mater. 28, 188–196 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Harris, S. J. & Lu, P. Effects of inhomogeneities — nanoscale to mesoscale — on the durability of Li-ion batteries. J. Phys. Chem. C. 117, 6481–6492 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Thorat, I. V. et al. Quantifying tortuosity in porous Li-ion battery materials. J. Power Sources 188, 592–600 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Billaud, J., Bouville, F., Magrini, T., Villevieille, C. & Studart, A. R. Magnetically aligned graphite electrodes for high-rate performance Li-ion batteries. Nat. Energy 1, 16097 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Bae, C. J., Erdonmez, C. K., Halloran, J. W. & Chiang, Y. M. Design of battery electrodes with dual-scale porosity to minimize tortuosity and maximize performance. Adv. Mater. 25, 1254–1258 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Behr, S., Amin, R., Chiang, Y. & Tomsia, A. Highly-structured, additive-free lithium-ion cathodes by freeze-casting technology. Ceram. Forum Int. 92, 39–43 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Sander, J., Erb, R. M., Li, L., Gurijala, A. & Chiang, Y.-M. High-performance battery electrodes via magnetic templating. Nat. Energy 1, 16099 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Long, J. W., Dunn, B., Rolison, D. R. & White, H. S. Three-dimensional battery architectures. Chem. Rev. 104, 4463–4492 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Pikul, J. H., Zhang, H. G., Cho, J., Braun, P. V. & King, W. P. High-power lithium ion microbatteries from interdigitated three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous electrodes. Nat. Commun. 4, 1732 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Li, G. et al. Stable metal battery anodes enabled by polyethylenimine sponge hosts by way of electrokinetic effects. Nat. Energy 3, 1076–1083 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Chu, H.-C. & Tuan, H.-Y. High-performance lithium-ion batteries with 1.5 μm thin copper nanowire foil as a current collector. J. Power Sources 346, 40–48 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Jow, T. R., Delp, S. A., Allen, J. L., Jones, J.-P. & Smart, M. C. Factors limiting Li+ charge transfer kinetics in Li-ion batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 165, A361–A367 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Abe, T., Sagane, F., Ohtsuka, M., Iriyama, Y. & Ogumi, Z. Lithium-ion transfer at the interface between lithium-ion conductive ceramic electrolyte and liquid electrolyte — a key to enhancing the rate capability of lithium-ion batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, A2151–A2154 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Xu, K., von Cresce, A. & Lee, U. Differentiating contributions to “ion transfer” barrier from interphasial resistance and Li+ desolvation at electrolyte/graphite interface. Langmuir 26, 11538–11543 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Peled, E. & Menkin, S. SEI: past, present and future. J. Electrochem. Soc. 164, A1703–A1719 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Liu, Y. et al. Solubility-mediated sustained release enabling nitrate additive in carbonate electrolytes for stable lithium metal anode. Nat. Commun. 9, 3656 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Komaba, S., Ozeki, T. & Okushi, K. Functional interface of polymer modified graphite anode. J. Power Sources 189, 197–203 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Ming, J. et al. New insights on graphite anode stability in rechargeable batteries: Li ion coordination structures prevail over solid electrolyte interphases. ACS Energy Lett. 3, 335–340 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Xu, K. Electrolytes and interphases in Li-ion batteries and beyond. Chem. Rev. 114, 11503–11618 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Li, Y. et al. Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo-electron microscopy. Science 358, 506–510 (2017). This work demonstrated the use of cryo-electron microscopy for characterizing battery materials.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Wang, X. et al. New insights on the structure of electrochemically deposited lithium metal and its solid electrolyte interphases via cryogenic TEM. Nano Lett. 17, 7606–7612 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Zachman, M. J., Tu, Z., Choudhury, S., Archer, L. A. & Kourkoutis, L. F. Cryo-STEM mapping of solid-liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries. Nature 560, 345–349 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Li, F. S., Wu, Y. S., Chou, J., Winter, M. & Wu, N. L. A mechanically robust and highly ion-conductive polymer-blend coating for high-power and long-life lithium-ion battery anodes. Adv. Mater. 27, 130–137 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Wang, C., Zhao, H., Wang, J., Wang, J. & Lv, P. Electrochemical performance of modified artificial graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Ionics 19, 221–226 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Persson, K. et al. Lithium diffusion in graphitic carbon. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1176–1180 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Cheng, Q., Yuge, R., Nakahara, K., Tamura, N. & Miyamoto, S. KOH etched graphite for fast chargeable lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 284, 258–263 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Kim, N., Chae, S., Ma, J., Ko, M. & Cho, J. Fast-charging high-energy lithium-ion batteries via implantation of amorphous silicon nanolayer in edge-plane activated graphite anodes. Nat. Commun. 8, 812 (2017). This work demonstrated a fast-charging hybrid anode of an amorphous silicon nanolayer and edge-site-activated graphite.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Lin, D., Liu, Y. & Cui, Y. Reviving the lithium metal anode for high-energy batteries. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 194–206 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Yan, K. et al. Selective deposition and stable encapsulation of lithium through heterogeneous seeded growth. Nat. Energy 1, 16010 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Sun, Y. et al. Graphite-encapsulated Li-metal hybrid anodes for high-capacity Li batteries. Chem 1, 287–297 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Burns, J., Stevens, D. & Dahn, J. In-situ detection of lithium plating using high precision coulometry. J. Electrochem. Soc. 162, A959–A964 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Downie, L. et al. In situ detection of lithium plating on graphite electrodes by electrochemical calorimetry. J. Electrochem. Soc. 160, A588–A594 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Wu, H., Zhuo, D., Kong, D. & Cui, Y. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator. Nat. Commun. 5, 5193 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Liu, K. et al. Electrospun core–shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. Sci. Adv. 3, e1601978 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Takami, N., Satoh, A., Hara, M. & Ohsaki, T. Structural and kinetic characterization of lithium intercalation into carbon anodes for secondary lithium batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 371–379 (1995).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Severson, K. A. et al. Data-driven prediction of battery cycle life before capacity degradation. Nat. Energy 4, 383–391 (2019). This work utlized machine learning to predict battery lives based on data collected from the early stages of battery cycling.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Nitta, N., Wu, F., Lee, J. T. & Yushin, G. Li-ion battery materials: present and future. Mater. Today 18, 252–264 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Jung, H.-G., Jang, M. W., Hassoun, J., Sun, Y.-K. & Scrosati, B. A high-rate long-life Li4Ti5O12/Li[Ni 0.45Co0.1Mn1.45]O4 lithium-ion battery. Nat. Commun. 2, 516 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Han, J.-T., Huang, Y.-H. & Goodenough, J. B. New anode framework for rechargeable lithium batteries. Chem. Mater. 23, 2027–2029 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Takami, N. et al. High-energy, fast-charging, long-life lithium-ion batteries using TiNb2O7 anodes for automotive applications. J. Power Sources 396, 429–436 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Son, I. H. et al. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density. Nat. Commun. 6, 7393 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Sun, J. et al. A phosphorene–graphene hybrid material as a high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 980–985 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Li, W. et al. Amorphous red phosphorus embedded in highly ordered mesoporous carbon with superior lithium and sodium storage capacity. Nano Lett. 16, 1546–1553 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Tang, Y., Zhang, Y., Li, W., Ma, B. & Chen, X. Rational material design for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 5926–5940 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Lin, D. et al. Layered reduced graphene oxide with nanoscale interlayer gaps as a stable host for lithium metal anodes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 626–632 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Zheng, J. et al. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries. Nat. Energy 2, 17012 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Mao, C., Ruther, R. E., Li, J., Du, Z. & Belharouak, I. Identifying the limiting electrode in lithium ion batteries for extreme fast charging. Electrochem. Commun. 97, 37–41 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Li, Z., Huang, J., Liaw, B. Y., Metzler, V. & Zhang, J. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries. J. Power Sources 254, 168–182 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Yang, X.-G., Zhang, G., Ge, S. & Wang, C.-Y. Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, 7266–7271 (2018). This work demonstrated 15-minute fast charging of Li-ion batteries in cold-temperature environments by preheating the battery with internal heaters.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Nissan Leaf Owner’ s Manual (Nissan Motor, 2017);

  81. 81.

    Wang, C.-Y. et al. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures. Nature 529, 515–518 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Rodrigues, M.-T. F. et al. A materials perspective on Li-ion batteries at extreme temperatures. Nat. Energy 2, 17108 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Leng, F., Tan, C. M. & Pecht, M. Effect of temperature on the aging rate of Li ion battery operating above room temperature. Sci. Rep. 5, 12967 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Ye, Y., Saw, L. H., Shi, Y., Somasundaram, K. & Tay, A. A. O. Effect of thermal contact resistances on fast charging of large format lithium ion batteries. Electrochim. Acta 134, 327–337 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Bandhauer, T. M., Garimella, S. & Fuller, T. F. A critical review of thermal issues in lithium-ion batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, R1–R25 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Liu, K., Liu, Y., Lin, D., Pei, A. & Cui, Y. Materials for lithium-ion battery safety. Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9820 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    W. Golubkov, A. et al. Thermal-runaway experiments on consumer Li-ion batteries with metal-oxide and olivin-type cathodes. RSC Adv. 4, 3633–3642 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Yang, Y., Huang, X., Cao, Z. & Chen, G. Thermally conductive separator with hierarchical nano/microstructures for improving thermal management of batteries. Nano Energy 22, 301–309 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Hunt, I. A., Zhao, Y., Patel, Y. & Offer, G. J. Surface cooling causes accelerated degradation compared to tab cooling for lithium-ion pouch cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, A1846–A1852 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Srinivasan, V. & Wang, C. Y. Analysis of electrochemical and thermal behavior of Li-ion cells. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A98–A106 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Tennessen, P. T., Weintraub, J. C. & Hermann, W. A. Extruded and ribbed thermal interface for use with a battery cooling system. US patent US8758924B2 (2014).

  92. 92.

    Hao, M., Li, J., Park, S., Moura, S. & Dames, C. Efficient thermal management of Li-ion batteries with a passive interfacial thermal regulator based on a shape memory alloy. Nat. Energy 3, 899–906 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Lu, J., Wu, T. & Amine, K. State-of-the–art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Nat. Energy 2, 17011 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Hu, E., Wang, X., Yu, X. & Yang, X.-Q. Probing the complexities of structural changes in layered oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries during fast charge-discharge cycling and heating. Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 290–298 (2018). This work reviewed major characterization techniques at multilength scales for monitoring the structural evolution and kinetic characteristics of layered transition metal oxides during fast charge/discharge.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Xia, S. et al. Chemomechanical interplay of layered cathode materials undergoing fast charging in lithium batteries. Nano Energy 53, 753–762 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Wood, V. X-ray tomography for battery research and development. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 293–295 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Liu, H. et al. Capturing metastable structures during high-rate cycling of LiFePO4 nanoparticle electrodes. Science 344, 1252817 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Zhou, Y. N. et al. High-rate charging induced intermediate phases and structural changes of layer-structured cathode for lithium-ion batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1600597 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Lim, J. et al. Origin and hysteresis of lithium compositional spatiodynamics within battery primary particles. Science 353, 566–571 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Oddershede, J. et al. Determining grain resolved stresses in polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 539–549 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the US Department of Energy under the eXtreme Fast Charge Cell Evaluation of Li-ion batteries (XCEL) programme.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yi Cui.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Y., Zhu, Y. & Cui, Y. Challenges and opportunities towards fast-charging battery materials. Nat Energy 4, 540–550 (2019).

Download citation

Further reading


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing