Since reaching 20% efficiency, research in perovskite photovoltaics has shifted from a race for efficiency to a race for stability. For efficiency, the standard test conditions set the rules for the race. However, the term ‘stability’ is used very broadly and assessed in various ways, meaning different groups are running different races. For the application, only energy yields that can be achieved under real-world, long-term operation matter. Here, we characterize and analyse the performance of an efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) under simulated ambient conditions based on real temperature and irradiance data from selected days over one year at a location in central Europe. We find that the PSC shows only a low decrease of efficiency with elevated temperature and low light intensity, maintaining almost optimum values for ambient conditions, under which most of the solar energy is incident on the solar cell. The overall energy yield differs from what is expected from standard test condition measurements and is influenced by reversible degradation (delivering the highest performance in the morning) and by a slight permanent degradation that is observable during the year. With reference to tandem cells, we compare the PSC with a silicon device.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The data (weather data and measured efficiencies of two PSCs and two SHJs) that support Figs. 1–5 are available in Supplementary Data 1, along with data from initial J–V scans. Any other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Correa-Baena, J.-P. et al. Promises and challenges of perovskite solar cells. Science 358, 739–744 (2017).
Yang, W. S. et al. Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science 356, 1376–1379 (2017).
Jiang, Q. et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells. Nat. Photon. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0398-2 (2019).
Best Research-Cell Efficiency Chart (NREL, 2019); https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html
Yoshikawa, K. et al. Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%. Nat. Energy 2, 17032 (2017).
Cuce, E., Cuce, P. M. & Bali, T. An experimental analysis of illumination intensity and temperature dependency of photovoltaic cell parameters. Appl. Energy 111, 374–382 (2013).
Leong, W. L. et al. Identifying fundamental limitations in halide perovskite solar cells. Adv. Mater. 28, 2439–2445 (2016).
Jacobsson, T. J., Tress, W., Correa-Baena, J.-P., Edvinsson, T. & Hagfeldt, A. Room temperature as a Goldilocks environment for CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: the importance of temperature on device performance. J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 11382–11393 (2016).
Dunbar, R. B. et al. Device pre-conditioning and steady-state temperature dependence of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25, 533–544 (2017).
Domanski, K., Alharbi, E. A., Hagfeldt, A., Grätzel, M. & Tress, W. Systematic investigation of the impact of operation conditions on the degradation behaviour of perovskite solar cells. Nat. Energy 3, 61–67 (2018).
Reese, M. O. et al. Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1253–1267 (2011).
Saliba, M. et al. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance. Science 354, 206–209 (2016).
Tan, H. et al. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation. Science 355, 722–726 (2017).
Christians, J. A. et al. Tailored interfaces of unencapsulated perovskite solar cells for >1,000 hour operational stability. Nat. Energy 3, 68–74 (2018).
Bush, K. A. et al. 23.6%-efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with improved stability. Nat. Energy 2, 20179 (2017).
Bag, M. et al. Kinetics of ion transport in perovskite active layers and its implications for active layer stability. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 13130–13137 (2015).
Nie, W. et al. Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells. Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
Tress, W., Correa Baena, J. P., Saliba, M., Abate, A. & Graetzel, M. Inverted current–voltage hysteresis in mixed perovskite solar cells: polarization, energy barriers, and defect recombination. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1600396 (2016).
Domanski, K. et al. Migration of cations induces reversible performance losses over day/night cycling in perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 604–613 (2017).
Khenkin, M. V. et al. Reconsidering figures of merit for the performance and stability of perovskite photovoltaics. Energy Environ. Sci. 11, 739–743 (2018).
Li, X. et al. Outdoor performance and stability under elevated temperatures and long-term light soaking of triple-layer mesoporous perovskite photovoltaics. Energy Technol. 3, 551–555 (2015).
Bella, F. et al. Improving efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells with photocurable fluoropolymers. Science 354, 203–206 (2016).
Akbulatov, A. F. et al. Effect of electron-transport material on light-induced degradation of inverted planar junction perovskite solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 7, 1700476 (2017).
Reyna, Y. et al. Performance and stability of mixed FAPbI3(0.85)MAPbBr3(0.15) halide perovskite solar cells under outdoor conditions and the effect of low light irradiation. Nano Energy 30, 570–579 (2016).
Stoichkov, V. et al. Outdoor performance monitoring of perovskite solar cell mini-modules: diurnal performance, observance of reversible degradation and variation with climatic performance. Sol. Energy 170, 549–556 (2018).
Christians, J. A., Habisreutinger, S. N., Berry, J. J. & Luther, J. M. Stability in perovskite photovoltaics: a paradigm for newfangled technologies. ACS Ener. Lett. 3, 2136–2143 (2018).
Cheacharoen, R. et al. Encapsulating perovskite solar cells to withstand damp heat and thermal cycling. Sustain. Energy Fuels 2, 2398–2406 (2018).
Sahli, F. et al. Fully textured monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with 25.2% power conversion efficiency. Nat. Mater. 17, 820–826 (2018).
Saliba, M. et al. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 1989–1997 (2016).
Descoeudres, A. et al. >21% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cells on n- and p-type wafers compared. IEEE J. Photovolt. 3, 83–89 (2013).
Unger, E. L. et al. Hysteresis and transient behavior in current–vvoltage measurements of hybrid-perovskite absorber solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 3690–3698 (2014).
Tress, W. et al. Understanding the rate-dependent J–V hysteresis, slow time component, and aging in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: the role of a compensated electric field. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 995–1004 (2015).
Tress, W. et al. Interpretation and evolution of open-circuit voltage, recombination, ideality factor and subgap defect states during reversible light-soaking and irreversible degradation of perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci. 11, 151–165 (2018).
Tress, W. Organic Solar Cells: Theory, Experiment, and Device Simulation (Springer, 2014).
Mishima, T., Taguchi, M., Sakata, H. & Maruyama, E. Development status of high-efficiency HIT solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 18–21 (2011).
Haschke, J. et al. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates. Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 1196–1206 (2017).
Dualeh, A., Moehl, T., Nazeeruddin, M. K. & Grätzel, M. Temperature dependence of transport properties of spiro-MeOTAD as a hole transport material in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. ACS Nano 7, 2292–2301 (2013).
Snaith, H. J. & Grätzel, M. Electron and hole transport through mesoporous TiO2 infiltrated with spiro-MeOTAD. Adv. Mater. 19, 3643–3647 (2007).
Katz, E. A. et al. Temperature dependence for the photovoltaic device parameters of polymer-fullerene solar cells under operating conditions. J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5343–5350 (2001).
Dupré, O., Niesen, B., De Wolf, S. & Ballif, C. Field performance versus standard test condition efficiency of tandem solar cells and the singular case of perovskites/silicon devices. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9, 446–458 (2018).
Domanski, K. et al. Not all that glitters is gold: metal-migration-induced degradation in perovskite solar cells. ACS Nano 10, 6306–6314 (2016).
Arora, N. et al. Perovskite solar cells with CuSCN hole extraction layers yield stabilized efficiencies greater than 20%. Science 358, 768–771 (2017).
Faiman, D. Assessing the outdoor operating temperature of photovoltaic modules. Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16, 307–315 (2008).
Koehl, M., Heck, M., Wiesmeier, S. & Wirth, J. Modeling of the nominal operating cell temperature based on outdoor weathering. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1638–1646 (2011).
We thank R. Monnard, B. Niessen and M. Boccard from PV-Lab Neuchâtel for providing the SHJs. We acknowledge the Swiss Federal Office MeteoSwiss for making the weather data available. W.T. acknowledges funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation through an Ambizione Energy fellowship. E.A.A. and M.G. acknowledge King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for financial support under a joint research project.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tress, W., Domanski, K., Carlsen, B. et al. Performance of perovskite solar cells under simulated temperature-illumination real-world operating conditions. Nat Energy 4, 568–574 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0400-8
Light: Science & Applications (2021)
High-throughput analysis of the ideality factor to evaluate the outdoor performance of perovskite solar minimodules
Nature Energy (2021)
Efficient Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Behaviour of Zinc Oxide Nanoplates Prepared By Hydrothermal Method
Journal of Cluster Science (2021)
Nanoscale Research Letters (2020)
Interplay between temperature and bandgap energies on the outdoor performance of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells
Nature Energy (2020)