Reversible fuel cells based on both proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell technologies have been proposed to address energy storage and conversion challenges and to provide versatile pathways for renewable fuels production. Both technologies suffer challenges associated with cost, durability, low round-trip efficiency and the need to separate H2O from the product fuel. Here, we present a reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cell based on an yttrium and ytterbium co-doped barium cerate–zirconate electrolyte and a triple-conducting oxide air/steam (reversible) electrode that addresses many of these issues. Our reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cell achieves a high Faradaic efficiency (90–98%) and can operate endothermically with a >97% overall electric-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (based on the lower heating value of H2) at a current density of −1,000 mA cm−2. Even higher efficiencies are obtained for H2O electrolysis with co-fed CO2 to produce CO and CH4. We demonstrate a repeatable round-trip (electricity-to-hydrogen-to-electricity) efficiency of >75% and stable operation, with a degradation rate of <30 mV over 1,000 h.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request. See Author contributions for specific datasets.
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This work was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E) through the REFUEL (award DE-AR0000808) and REBELS programmes (award DE-AR0000493). Additional support was provided by the Army Research Office under grant number W911NF-17-1-0051, the Office of Naval Research via grant N00014-16-1-2780, the National Science Foundation via grant DMR156375, the Colorado School of Mines Foundation via the Angel Research Fund and the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (COEDIT) under their Advanced Industries Proof-of-Concept Grant programme. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of ARPA-E, the Department of Energy, the Army Research Office or the US Government.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Duan, C., Kee, R., Zhu, H. et al. Highly efficient reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cells for power generation and fuel production. Nat Energy 4, 230–240 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0333-2
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