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Net energy analysis must not compare apples and oranges

Energy return on investment (EROI) is a critical measure of the comparative utility of different energy carriers, including fossil fuels and renewables. However, it must not be used to compare carriers that cannot be put to similar end-use. In addition, combining carriers to arrive at estimates of ‘average’ or ‘minimum’ EROIs can be problematic.

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Fig. 1: EROI of domestic oil supply in California.


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Correspondence to Marco Raugei.

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Raugei, M. Net energy analysis must not compare apples and oranges. Nat Energy 4, 86–88 (2019).

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