Table 1 Average efficiencies and corresponding revenues for each duty cycle and chemistry combination for batteries undergoing the duty cycles at E/P = 1

From: Combined economic and technological evaluation of battery energy storage for grid applications

Duty cycle Revenue Battery chemistry
100% PbA LFP NiCd NMC Alv
Time shift Efficiency (%) 100.0 88.1 93.1 83.8 93.5 95.1
Revenue (US$) 36.3 26.2 30.1 22.9 30.5 31.8
Congestion Efficiency (%) 100.0 89.4 94.8 84.9 97.0 92.8
Revenue (US$) 13.5 9.1 11.4 7.4 12.3 10.6
Ramping Efficiency (%) 100.0 89.4 96.0 86.5 96.6 92.8
Revenue (US$) 39.9 27.1 35.7 23.8 36.5 31.8
Regulation Efficiency (%) 100.0 89.9 97.2 90.0 97.4 N/A
Revenue (US$) 33.6 24.3 31.1 24.4 31.2 N/A