Fig. 3: Preparatory electrochemical testing and Ragone data. | Nature Energy

Fig. 3: Preparatory electrochemical testing and Ragone data.

From: Combined economic and technological evaluation of battery energy storage for grid applications

Fig. 3

a, Charging/discharging the five batteries at constant power for one hour. Charge and discharge power are the same, so current is higher on discharge than on charge. b, An individual Ragone of a PbA battery. The battery was cycled at constant power at rates that correspond to E/P ratios of 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 according to the rated energy of the battery (from left to right). The green line shows the splined fit of the charge energy of the battery. Light grey squares indicate max \(P^{\rm{C}}\) and max \(S^{\rm{E}}\) for E/P = 1, and dark grey squares indicate the same values for E/P = 3. The value of max \(S^{\rm{E}}\) is equal to the SOC range multiplied by the total available energy at max \(P^{\rm{C}}\). c, Normalized Ragone data of the five tested battery chemistries. The batteries were cycled at constant power at rates that correspond to E/P ratios of 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 (from left to right). The curves show the splined fit of the charge energies of the batteries. d, Energy efficiency of the five chemistries at rates correspond to the E/P ratios in c. The curves show the splined fit. Error bars in c and d show the standard error of the energy efficiency at each rate with a sample size of ten batteries of each chemistry.

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