Fig. 1: California electricity transmission paths and the four applications examined. | Nature Energy

Fig. 1: California electricity transmission paths and the four applications examined.

From: Combined economic and technological evaluation of battery energy storage for grid applications

Fig. 1

The central image (b) shows where the data were obtained. The red dot shows the primary node (LAJOLLA_6), from which the pricing and power data used in this article were obtained for the application duty cycles. The green paths show the location of California’s two major transmission paths and the corresponding ancillary service regions NP15 (north of Path 15), SP15 (south of Path 15) and ZP26 (south of Path 15 and north of Path 26). a,ce, The graphs depict the four different application duty cycles considered here: energy time shift (a), congestion relief (c), flexible ramping (d) and frequency regulation (e).

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