Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A global biodiversity observing system to unite monitoring and guide action

An Author Correction to this article was published on 20 November 2023

This article has been updated

The rate and extent of global biodiversity change is surpassing our ability to measure, monitor and forecast trends. We propose an interconnected worldwide system of observation networks — a global biodiversity observing system (GBiOS) — to coordinate monitoring worldwide and inform action to reach international biodiversity targets.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: A GBiOS as a global network of interconnected national and regional BONs to assess biodiversity trends worldwide.

Change history


  1. Obura, D. et al. One Earth 6, 105–117 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Leadley, P. et al. One Earth 5, 597–603 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Gonzalez, A. & Londoño, M. C. Science 378, 1147 (2022).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Scholes, R. J. et al. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 4, 139–146 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Pereira, H. M. & David Cooper, H. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 123–129 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Gonzalez, A., Chase, J. M. & O’Connor, M. I. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 378, 20220182 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Urban, M. C. et al. Science 353, aad8466 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. IPBES. IPBES (2019): Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, 2019)

  9. Carroll, S. R., Herczog, E., Hudson, M., Russell, K. & Stall, S. Sci. Data 8, 108 (2021).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Dornelas, M. et al. Global Ecol. Biog. 27, 760–786 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hudson, L. N. et al. Ecol. Evol. 7, 145–188 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Hughes, A. C. et al. Ecography 44, 1259–1269 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Pereira, H. M. et al. Science 339, 277–278 (2013).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Schmeller, D. S. Biol. Res. 93, 55–71 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Balvanera, P. et al. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 54, 101152 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kühl, H. S. et al. One Earth 3, 462–474 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Navarro, L. et al. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustai. 29, 158–169 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cavender-Bares, J. et al. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 6, 506–519 (2022).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Bush, A. et al. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 0176 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bellingham, P. J. et al. Ecol. Sols. & Evid. 1, e12025 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


To the memory of Bob Scholes who contributed so much to GEO BON and the vision of the GBiOS. A.G. is supported by the Liber Ero Chair in Biodiversity Conservation. Any use of trade, product or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the United States Government. This research was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). The first draft was written and prepared by A.G. All authors have read and commented on the paper.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrew Gonzalez.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors have no competing interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Table 1

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gonzalez, A., Vihervaara, P., Balvanera, P. et al. A global biodiversity observing system to unite monitoring and guide action. Nat Ecol Evol 7, 1947–1952 (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing