Plasmids are well known for transferring antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria. A study in the clinic shows that evolutionary dynamics within the gut microbiomes of hospitalized patients lead to rapid adaptive changes, balancing the level of resistance that plasmids provide against the fitness costs that they impose on bacteria.
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Wright, R.C.T., Brockhurst, M.A. Plasmid evolution in the clinic. Nat Ecol Evol 6, 1806–1807 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-022-01907-8