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A complex story of groundwater abstraction and ecological threats to the Doñana National Park World Heritage Site

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Fig. 1: Annual maximum flooded surface area (ha) in the Doñana marshes from 1994 to 2020.


  1. Camacho, C. et al. Nat. Ecol. & Evol. 6, 654–655 (2022).

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  2. UNESCO, IUCN & Ramsar. Joint Reactive Monitoring Mission to Doñana National Park (Spain) (Ramsar, 2021).

  3. Acreman, M. C., Casier, R. & Salathe, T. Wetlands (in the press).

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The authors acknowledge the many individuals, organisations, authorities, agencies and scientists who provided written or verbal evidence to the review; all of which was incorporated and referenced.

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Correspondence to Mike Acreman.

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Mike Acreman is an independent consultant and un-paid Research Fellow of the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. He received an honorarium for leading the review on behalf of IUCN’s World Heritage Programme. Tobias Salathe is a salaried staff member of the Ramsar Secretariat. Neither author has any other financial or non-financial interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication.

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Acreman, M., Salathe, T. A complex story of groundwater abstraction and ecological threats to the Doñana National Park World Heritage Site. Nat Ecol Evol 6, 1401–1402 (2022).

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