Racial and ethnic discrimination persist in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields, including ecology, evolution and conservation biology (EECB) and related disciplines. Marginalization and oppression as a result of institutional and structural racism continue to create barriers to inclusion for Black people, Indigenous people and people of colour (BIPOC), and remnants of historic racist policies and pseudoscientific theories continue to plague these fields. Many academic EECB departments seek concrete ways to improve the climate and implement anti-racist policies in their teaching, training and research activities. We present a toolkit of evidence-based interventions for academic EECB departments to foster anti-racism in three areas: in the classroom; within research laboratories; and department wide. To spark restorative discussion and action in these areas, we summarize EECB’s racist and ethnocentric histories, as well as current systemic problems that marginalize non-white groups. Finally, we present ways that EECB departments can collectively address shortcomings in equity and inclusion by implementing anti-racism, and provide a positive model for other departments and disciplines.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Theoretical Ecology Open Access 26 March 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Allen, W. R., Epps, E. G., Guillory, E. A., Suh, S. A. & Bonous-Hammarth, M. The Black academic: faculty status among African Americans in US higher education. J. Negro Educ. 69, 112–127 (2000).
Halsey, S. J., Strickland, L. R., Scott-Richardson, M., Perrin-Stower, T. & Massenburg, L. Elevate, don’t assimilate, to revolutionize the experience of scientists who are Black, Indigenous and people of colour. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 4, 1291–1293 (2020).
Chaudhury, A. & Colla, S. Next steps in dismantling discrimination: lessons from ecology and conservation science. Conserv. Lett. 14, e12774 (2020).
Schell, C. J. et al. Recreating Wakanda by promoting Black excellence in ecology and evolution. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 4, 1285–1287 (2020).
Chaudhary, B. & Berhe, A. A. Ten simple rules for building an anti-racist lab. PLoS Comput. Biol. 16, e1008210 (2020).
Gewin, V. The time tax put on scientists of colour. Nature 583, 479–481 (2020).
Kendi, I. X. How to be an Antiracist (One World, 2019).
Miriti, M. N. The elephant in the room: race and STEM diversity. BioScience 70, 237–242 (2020).
Balcarczyk, K. L., Smaldone, D., Selin, S. W., Pierskalla, C. D. & Maumbe, K. Barriers and supports to entering a natural resource career: perspectives of culturally diverse recent hires. J. For. 113, 231–239 (2015).
Haynes, N. A. & Jacobsen, S. Barriers and perceptions of natural resource careers by minority students. J. Environ. Educ. 46, 166–182 (2015).
Morales, N. et al. Promoting inclusion in ecological field experiences: examining and overcoming barriers to a professional rite of passage. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 101, e01742 (2020).
O’Brien, L. T., Bart, H. & Garcia, D. Why are there so few ethnic minorities in ecology and evolutionary biology? Challenges to inclusion and the role of sense of belonging. Soc. Psychol. Educ. 23, 449–477 (2020).
Kou-Giesbrecht, S. Asian Americans: the forgotten minority in ecology. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 101, e01696 (2020).
Tseng, M. et al. Strategies and support for Black, Indigenous, and people of colour in ecology and evolutionary biology. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 4, 1288–1290 (2020).
Li, D. & Koedel, C. Representation and salary gaps by race—ethnicity and gender at selective public universities. Educ. Res. 46, 343–354 (2017).
Wanelik, K. M., Griffin, J. S., Head, M. L., Ingleby, F. C. & Lewis, Z. Breaking barriers? Ethnicity and socioeconomic background impact on early career progression in the fields of ecology and evolution. Ecol. Evol. 10, 6870–6880 (2020).
Page, S., Trudgett, M. & Sullivan, C. Past, present and future: acknowledging Indigenous achievement and aspiration in higher education. HERDSA Rev. High. Educ. 4, 29–51 (2017).
Davis, R. et al. Increasing diversity in our profession. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 30, 628–633 (2002).
Beck, C. W., Boersma, K., Tysor, C. S. & Middendorf, G. Diversity at 100: women and underrepresented minorities in the ESA: peer-reviewed letter. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12, 434–436 (2014).
Ginther, D. K. Race, ethnicity, and NIH research awards. Science 333, 1015–1019 (2011).
Malone, K. R. & Barabino, G. Narrations of race in STEM research settings: identity formation and its discontents. Sci. Educ. 93, 485–510 (2009).
Diep, F. ‘I was fed up’: How the #BlackInTheIvory got started, and what its founders want to see next. The Chronicles of Higher Education (9 June 2020).
Lambert, J. A #BlackBirdersWeek cofounder aims to amplify Black nature enthusiasts. Science News (4 June 2020).
Thorp, H. H. Time to look in the mirror. Science 368, 1161 (2020).
Linnaeus, C. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae Systematice Proposita per Classes, Ordines, Genera, & Species (Lugduni Batavorum apud Theodorum Haak, 1758).
Shiffman, D. Scientists should stop naming species after awful people. Scientific American (8 November 2019).
De Vos, A. The problem of ‘colonial science’. Scientific American (1 July 2020).
Hardin, G. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243–1248 (1968).
Ehrlich, P. The Population Bomb (Ballantine Books, 1968).
Dyett, J. & Thomas, C. Overpopulation discourse: patriarchy, racism, and the specter of ecofascism. Perspect. Glob. Dev. Technol. 18, 205–224 (2019).
Graves, J. L. African Americans in evolutionary science: where we have been, and what’s next. Evolution 12, 18 (2019).
Shields, S. A. & Bahtia, S. Darwin on race, gender, and culture. Am. Psychol. 64, 111–119 (2009).
Gannett, L. Racism and human genome diversity research: the ethical limits of ‘population thinking’. Phil. Sci. 68, S479–S492 (2001).
Carter, R. Genes, genomes and genealogies: the return of scientific racism. Ethn. Racial Stud. 30, 546–556 (2007).
Winston, A. S. Why mainstream research will not end scientific racism in psychology. Theory Psychol. 30, 425–430 (2020).
Lewontin, R. in The Concept of Race in Natural and Social Sciences (ed. Gates, E. N.) 381–398 (Routledge, 1972).
Bamshad, M., Wooding, S., Salisbury, B. A. & Claiborne Stephens, J. Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race. Ethn. Racial Stud. 30, 546–556 (2007).
Reardon, J. & Tallbear, K. “Your DNA is Our History”: genomics, anthropology, and the construction of whiteness as property. Curr. Anthropol. 53, S233–S245 (2012).
Das, S. & Lowe, M. Nature read in black and white: decolonial approaches to interpreting natural history collections. J. Nat. Sci. Collect. Assoc. 6, 4–14 (2018).
Cox, P. A. & Elmqvist, T. Ecocolonialism and Indigenous-controlled rainforest preserves in Samoa. Ambio 26, 84–89 (1997).
Hayward et al. Deconstructing compassionate conservation. Conserv. Biol. 33, 760–768 (2019).
Kantor, I. Ethnic cleansing and America’s creation of national parks. Pub. Land Resour. Law Rev. 28, 41–64 (2007).
Poirier, A. & Ostergren, D. Evicting people from nature: Indigenous land rights and national parks in Australia, Russia, and the United States. Nat. Resour. J. 41, 331–352 (2002).
Lee, R. & Ahtone, T. Land-grab universities. High Country News (30 March 2020).
The Next 100 Years of American Conservation (US Interior Department, 2016); https://medium.com/@Interior/the-next-100-years-of-american-conservation-397c42b8f1f2
Brune, M. Pulling Down Our Monuments (Sierra Club, 2020); https://www.sierraclub.org/michael-brune/2020/07/john-muir-early-history-sierra-club
Hodder, S. Reckoning with the League Founders’ Eugenics Past (Save the Redwoods League, 2020); https://www.savetheredwoods.org/blog/reckoning-with-the-league-founders-eugenics-past/
Henderson, C., Bach, A. & Finkelstein, N. Facilitating change in undergraduate STEM instructional practices: an analytic review of the literature. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 48, 952–984 (2011).
Carpi, A. & Lents, N. L. Research by undergraduates helped underfinanced colleges as well as students. Chron. High. Educ. 60, B30–B31 (2013).
Pèrez, D. Exploring the nexus between community and cultural wealth and the academic and social experiences of Latino male achievers at two predominantly White research universities. Int. J. Qual. Stud. Educ. 27, 747–767 (2014).
Koenig, K., Schen, M., Edwards, M. & Bao, L. Addressing STEM retention through a scientific thought and methods course. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 41, 23–29 (2012).
Penner, M. R. Building an inclusive classroom. J. Undergrad. Neurosci. Educ. 16, A268–A272 (2018).
Mervis, J. Weed-out courses hamper diversity. Science 334, 1333 (2011).
Theobald, E. et al. Active learning narrows achievement gaps for underrepresented students in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 6476–6483 (2020).
Beltran, R. S. et al. Field courses narrow demographic achievement gaps in ecology and evolution. Ecol. Evol. 10, 5184–5196 (2020).
Freeman, S. et al. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 8410–8415 (2014).
Zavaleta, E. S., Beltran, R. S. & Borker, A. L. How field courses propel inclusion and collective excellence. Trends Ecol. Evol. 35, 953–956 (2020).
Faculty Dialogue Series: Creating Inclusive Classrooms (University of California, Berkeley, 2020); https://cejce.berkeley.edu/faculty/our-programs-and-services/faculty-dialogue-series
Walton, G. The new science of wise psychological interventions. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 23, 73–82 (2014).
Harackiewicz, J. M., Canning, E. A., Tibbetts, Y., Priniski, S. J. & Hyde, J. S. Closing achievement gaps with a utility-value intervention: disentangling race and social class. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 111, 745–765 (2016).
Harackiewicz, J. M. & Priniski, S. J. Improving student outcomes in higher education: the science of targeted intervention. Ann. Rev. Psychol. 69, 409–435 (2018).
Casad, B. et al. Wise psychological interventions to improve gender and racial equality in STEM. Group Process. Intergroup Relat. 21, 767–787 (2018).
Durkin, E. DNA scientist James Watson stripped of honors over views on race. The Guardian (13 January 2019).
Kimmerer, R. W. Weaving traditional ecological knowledge into biological education: a call to action. BioScience 52, 432–438 (2002).
Zafra-Calvo, N. et al. Towards an indicator system to assess equitable management in protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 211, 134–141 (2017).
Schuster, R., Germain, R. R., Bennett, J. R., Reo, N. J. & Arcese, P. Vertebrate biodiversity on Indigenous-managed lands in Australia, Brazil, and Canada equals that in protected areas. Environ. Sci. Pol. 101, 1–6 (2019).
Posey, D. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (IT Publishing, 1999).
Cooper, N., Brady, E., Steen, H. & Bryce, R. Aesthetic and spiritual values of ecosystems: recognising the ontological and axiological plurality of cultural ecosystem ‘services’. Ecosyst. Serv. 21, 218–229 (2016).
Schell, C. J. et al. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of systemic racism in urban environments. Science 369, eaay4497 (2020).
Tallbear, K. Native American DNA: Tribal Belonging and the False Promise of Genetic Science (Univ. Minnesota Press, 2013).
Holt, F. The catch-22 of conservation: Indigenous peoples, biologists, and cultural change. Hum. Ecol. 33, 199–215 (2005).
McGill, B. M. et al. You are welcome here: a practical guide to diversity, equity, and inclusion for undergraduates embarking on an ecological research experience. Ecol. Evol. 11, 3636–3645 (2021).
Wood, S. et al. A scientist like me: demographic analysis of biology textbooks reveals both progress and long-term lags. Proc. Royal Soc. B 287, 20200877 (2020).
Schinske, J. N., Perkins, H., Snyder, A. & Wyer, M. Scientist spotlight homework assignments shift students’ stereotypes of scientists and enhance science identity in a diverse introductory science class. CBE Life Sci. Educ.15, ar47 (2016).
Bergenhenegouwen, G. Hidden curriculum in the university. High. Educ. 16, 535–543 (1987).
Smith, B. Mentoring At-Risk Students Through the Hidden Curriculum of Higher Education (Lexington Books, 2013).
Jones, M. T., Barlow, A. E. L. & Villarejo, M. Importance of undergraduate research for minority persistence and achievement in biology. J. High. Educ. 81, 82–115 (2010).
Houser, C. & Lemmons, K. Implicit bias in letters of recommendation for an undergraduate research internship. J. Furth. High. Educ. 42, 585–595 (2018).
Developing Community Agreements (National Equity Project, 2020); https://www.nationalequityproject.org/tools/developing-community-agreements
Hubert, A. & Reichwein, D. Code of Conduct for Responsible Geoengineering Research (2017).
Clark, M. A., Michel, J. S., Zhdanova, L., Pui, S. Y. & Baltes, B. B. All work and no play? A meta-analytic examination of the correlates and outcomes of workaholism. J. Manage. 42, 1836–1873 (2016).
Montgomery, B. L. Effective mentors show up healed. Beronda L. Montgomery https://www.berondamontgomery.com/2019/12/ (2019).
Sorcinelli, M. D. & Yun, J. From mentor to mentoring networks: mentoring in the new academy. Change 39, 58–61 (2007).
Demery, A. J. C. & Pipkin, M. A. Safe fieldwork strategies for at-risk individuals, their supervisors and institutions. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 5, 5–9 (2021).
Lee, S. P., McGee, R., Pfund, C. & Branchaw, J. in The Mentoring Continuum: From Graduate School to Tenure (ed. Wright, G.) 133–154 (The Graduate School Press, 2015).
Baker, K., Eichhorn, M. P. & Griffiths, M. Decolonizing field ecology. Biotropica 51, 288–292 (2019).
TallBear, K.Standing with and speaking as faith: a feminist-Indigenous approach to inquiry. J. Res. Pract. 10, N17 (2014).
Ban, N. C. et al. Incorporate Indigenous perspectives for impactful research and effective management. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 1680–1683 (2018).
Whyte, W. F. Advancing scientific knowledge through participatory action research. Sociol. Forum 4, 367–385 (1989).
Reid, R. & Garson, K. Rethinking multicultural group work as intercultural learning. J. Stud. Int. Educ. 21, 195–212 (2017).
Tallis, H. & Lubchenco, J. Working together: a call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515, 27–28 (2014).
Amah Mutsun Relearning Program (Univ. California, Santa Cruz, 2020); https://arboretum.ucsc.edu/education/relearning-program/
MacKey, T. K. & Liang, B. A. Integrating biodiversity management and Indigenous biopiracy protection to promote environmental justice and global health. Am. J. Public Health 102, 1091–1095 (2012).
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2011).
Nelson, R. G., Rutherford, J. N., Hinde, K. & Clancy, K. B. H. Signaling safety: characterizing fieldwork experiences and their implications for career trajectories. Am. Anthropol. 119, 710–722 (2017).
Wilson, Z. S. Hierarchical mentoring: a transformative strategy for improving diversity and retention in undergraduate STEM disciplines. J. Sci. Educ. Technol. 21, 148–156 (2012).
Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, & Action (IDEA) (Univ. California, Santa Cruz, 2020); https://www.eeb.ucsc.edu/about/idea_committee.html
Wijesingha, R. & Ramos, H. Human capital or cultural taxation: what accounts for differences in tenure and promotion of racialized and female faculty? Can. J. High. Educ. 47, 54–75 (2017).
O’Meara, K., Culpepper, D. & Templeton, L. L. Nudging toward diversity: applying behavioral design to faculty hiring. Rev. Educ. Res. 90, 311–348 (2020).
Bilimoria, D. & Buch, K. K. The search is on: engendering faculty diversity through more effective search and recruitment. Change 42, 27–32 (2010).
Bhalla, N. Strategies to improve equity in faculty hiring. Mol. Biol. Cell 30, 2744–2749 (2019).
Flaherty, C. Breaking down diversity statements. Inside Higher Ed (19 November 2018).
Speech on Campus (ACLU, 2020); https://www.aclu.org/other/speech-campus
Hekman, D. R., Johnson, S. K., Foo, M. & Yang, W. Does diversity-valuing behavior result in diminished performance ratings for non-white and female leaders? Acad. Manage. J. 60, 771–797 (2017).
Hanasono, L. et al. Secret service: revealing gender biases in the visibility and value of faculty service. J. Divers. High. Educ. 12, 85–98 (2019).
Lisnic, R., Zajicek, A. & Morimoto, S. Gender and race differences in faculty assessment of tenure clarity: the influence of departmental relationships and practices. Sociol. Race Ethn. 5, 244–260 (2019).
Farr, C. M. et al. Addressing the gender gap in distinguished speakers at professional ecology conferences. BioScience 67, 464–468 (2017).
Price, J. The effect of instructor race and gender on student persistence in STEM fields. Econ. Educ. Rev. 29, 901–910 (2010).
Torres, K. ‘Culture Shock’: Black students account for their distinctiveness at an elite college. Ethn. Racial Stud. 32, 883–905 (2009).
Carter-Sowell, A. R. et al. Bloom where you are planted: reflections on effecting campus climate change to retain minoritized faculty scholars in STEM fields. In Growing Diverse STEM Communities: Methodology, Impact, and Evidence 197–214 (ACS Symposium Series Vol. 1328, ACS Publications, 2019).
Lee, J. & Rice, C. Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. High. Educ. 53, 381–409 (2007).
George Mwangi, C. A. Exploring sense of belonging among Black international students at an HBCU. J. Int. Stud. 6, 1015–1037 (2016).
Bevis, T. B. At a glance: international students in the United States. Int. Educ. 11, 12–17 (2002).
Heng, T. T. Understanding the heterogeneity of international students’ experiences: a case study of Chinese international students in US universities. J. Stud. Int. Educ. 23, 607–623 (2019).
George Mwangi, C. A., Changamire, N. & Mosselson, J. An intersectional understanding of African graduate students’ experiences in US higher education. J. Divers. High. Educ. 12, 52–64 (2018).
Wilson, M. A., DePass, A. L. & Bean, A. J. Institutional interventions that remove barriers to recruit and retain diverse biomedical PhD students. CBE Life Sci. Educ. 17, ar27 (2018).
Gewin, V. What Black scientists want from colleagues and their institutions. Nature 583, 319–322 (2020).
Lawrence, S. M. Contextual matters: teachers’ perceptions of the success of antiracist classroom practices. J. Educ. Res. 98, 350–365 (2005).
Whittaker, J. & Montgomery, B. Cultivating diversity and competency in STEM: challenges and remedies for removing virtual barriers to constructing diverse higher education communities of success. J. Undergrad. Neurosci. Educ. 11, 44–51 (2012).
Anderson, D. R. The racism of confederate statues. Hobble Creek https://hobblecreek.us/blog/entry/where-do-Confederate-monuments-go-to-die (2020).
Whitford, E. & Burke, L. Students demand campuses cut ties with police. Inside Higher Ed (5 June 2020).
Felton, R. Officer who shot Samuel Dubose faces murder trial as city braces for protests. The Guardian (25 October 2016).
Freire, P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Seabury, 1968).
Kishimoto, K. Anti-racist pedagogy: from faculty’s self-reflection to organizing within and beyond the classroom. Race Ethn. Educ. 21, 540–554 (2018).
Marx, D. M. & Goff, P. A. Clearing the air: the effect of experimenter race on target’s test performance and subjective experience. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 44, 645–657 (2005).
Chang, M. J. The Positive Educational Effects of Racial Diversity on Campus (US Department of Education, 2001).
Hagedorn, L. S., Chi, W., Cepeda, R. M. & McLain, M. An investigation of critical mass: the role of Latino representation in the success of urban community college students. Res. High. Educ. 48, 73–91 (2007).
Pascarella, E. T., Bohr, L., Nora, A. & Terenzini, P. T. Is differential exposure to college linked to the development of critical thinking? Res. High. Educ. 37, 159–174 (1996).
Denson, N. & Chang, M. Racial diversity matters: the impact of diversity-related student engagement and institutional context. Am. Educ. Res. J. 46, 322–353 (2009).
McLeod, P. L., Lobel, S. A. & Cox, T. H. Jr. Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groups. Small Group Res. 27, 248–264 (1996).
Antonio, A. L. When does race matter in college friendships? Exploring men’s diverse and homogenous friendship groups. Rev. High. Educ. 27, 553–575 (2004).
Page, S. E. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies (Princeton Univ. Press, 2007).
Freeman, R. B. & Huang, W. Collaboration: strength in diversity. Nature 513, 305 (2014).
Lewis, N. A. Jr What I’ve learned about being a Black scientist. Science (16 June 2020).
Purdy, J. Environmentalism’s racist history. The New Yorker (13 April 2015).
Chen, S. Researchers around the world prepare to #ShutDownSTEM and ‘Strike For Black Lives’. Science (9 June 2020).
Bashford, A. & Levine, P. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics (Oxford Univ. Press, 2010).
Bowler, P. The role of the history of science in the understanding of social Darwinism and eugenics. Impact Sci. Soc. 40, 273–278 (1990).
Pressman, L. How Evolution was Used to Support Scientific Racism (Trinity College, 2017).
Agrawal, A. & Redford, K. Conservation and displacement: an overview. Conserv. Soc. 7, 1–10 (2009).
Spiro, J. P. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant (Univ. Press of New England, 2009).
Hart, A. G., Leather, S. R. & Sharma, M. V. Overseas conservation education and research: the new colonialism? J. Biol. Educ. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2020.1739117 (2020).
Tang, R. & Gavin, M. C. A classification of threats to traditional ecological knowledge and conservation responses. Conserv. Soc. 14, 57–70 (2016).
Duffy et al. Why we must question the militarization of conservation. Biol. Conserv. 232, 66–73 (2019).
Dweck, C. S. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (Ballantine Books, 2006).
Dweck, C. S., Walton, G. M. & Cohen, G. L. Academic Tenacity: Mindsets and Skills that Promote Long-Term Learning (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2014).
Hochanadel, A. & Finamore, D. Fixed and growth mindset in education and how grit helps students persist in the face of adversity. J. Int. Educ. Res. 11, 47–50 (2015).
Fink, A., Cahill, M. J., McDaniel, M. A., Hoffman, A. & Frey, R. F. Improving general chemistry performance through a growth mindset intervention: selective effects on underrepresented minorities. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 19, 783–806 (2018).
Mahmud, A. & Gagnon, J. Racial disparities in student outcomes in British higher education: examining mindsets and bias. Teach. High. Educ. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1796619 (2020).
Hulleman, C. S., Godes, O., Hendricks, B. L. & Harackiewicz, J. M. Enhancing interest and performance with a utility value intervention. J. Educ. Psychol. 102, 880–895 (2010).
Canning et al. Improving performance and retention in introductory biology with a utility–value intervention. J. Educ. Psychol. 110, 834–839 (2018).
Miyake, A. et al. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation. Science 330, 1234–1237 (2010).
Creswell, J. D. et al. Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychol. Sci. 16, 846–851 (2005).
Steele, C. M. & Liu, T. J. Dissonance processes as self-affirmation. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 45, 5–19 (1983).
Purdie-Vaughns, V. et al. Improving minority academic performance: how a values-affirmation intervention works. Teachers College Record (23 September 2009).
Shnabel, N., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Cook, J. E., Garcia, J. & Cohen, G. L. Demystifying values-affirmation interventions: writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 39, 663–676 (2013).
Cook, J. E., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J. & Cohen, G. L. Chronic threat and contingent belonging: protective benefits of values affirmation on identity development. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 102, 479–496 (2012).
Brady, S. T. et al. The psychology of the affirmed learner: spontaneous self-affirmation in the face of stress. J. Educ. Psychol. 108, 353–373 (2016).
Survey of Earned Doctorates (National Science Foundation, 2018); https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvydoctorates/#tabs-2
QuickFacts (US Census Bureau, 2018); https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045219
Haraway, D. Situated knowledges: the science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Fem. Stud. 14, 575–599 (1988).
Davis, A. Freedom is a Constant Struggle: Ferguson, Palestine, and the Foundations of a Movement (ed. Barat, F.) (Haymarket Books, 2015).
Tsing, A. L. Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection (Princeton Univ. Press, 2005).
Schuurman, N. & Pratt, G. Care of the subject: feminism and critiques of GIS. Gend. Place Cult. 9, 291–299 (2002).
Charleston, L. J., Adserias, R. P., Lang, N. M. & Jackson, J. F. L. Intersectionality and STEM: the role of race and gender in the academic pursuits of African American women in STEM. J. Prog. Policy Pract. 2, 239–254 (2014).
Mackay, A., Adger, D., Bond, A. L., Giles, S. & Ochu, E. Straight-washing ecological legacies. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3, 1611 (2019).
Nichols, S. & Stahl, G. Intersectionality in higher education research: a systematic literature review. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 38, 1255–1268 (2019).
State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review (Kirwan Institute, 2017).
Allport, G. W. The Nature of Prejudice (Addison-Wesley, 1954).
Pager, D. & Shepherd, H. The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 34, 181–209 (2008).
Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L. & Esquilin, M. Racial microaggressions in everyday life: implications for clinical practice. Am. Psychol. 62, 271–286 (2007).
Hate speech and violence. ECRI https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/hate-speech-and-violence (2021).
Cardwell, M. The Dictionary of Psychology (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1996).
Steele, C. M. & Aronson, J. Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 69, 797–811 (1995).
McIntonsh, P. White Privilege and Male Privilege (Wellesley Centers for Women, 1998); https://www.wcwonline.org/images/pdf/White_Privilege_and_Male_Privilege_Personal_Account-Peggy_McIntosh.pdf
We acknowledge and thank T. M. L. Scholz, P. DeSalles, M. Carr and J. Straub for their review and insight into this work.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Ecology & Evolution thanks Melanie Culver, Danielle Lee and Zoe Todd for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary Methods, Fig. 1 and Table 1.
Anti-racism checklist for EECB departments. This checklist is intended to be a starting point for students, principal investigators, faculty members and academic administrators when implementing anti-racist pedagogy and practices in EECB departments.
About this article
Cite this article
Cronin, M.R., Alonzo, S.H., Adamczak, S.K. et al. Anti-racist interventions to transform ecology, evolution and conservation biology departments. Nat Ecol Evol 5, 1213–1223 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01522-z
This article is cited by
Theoretical Ecology (2022)
Narratives of Positionality in Primatology: Foreign/Range–Country Collaborator Perspectives from Africa and South America
International Journal of Primatology (2022)