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Impact of 2019–2020 mega-fires on Australian fauna habitat

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Australia’s 2019–2020 mega-fires were exacerbated by drought, anthropogenic climate change and existing land-use management. Here, using a combination of remotely sensed data and species distribution models, we found these fires burnt ~97,000 km2 of vegetation across southern and eastern Australia, which is considered habitat for 832 species of native vertebrate fauna. Seventy taxa had a substantial proportion (>30%) of habitat impacted; 21 of these were already listed as threatened with extinction. To avoid further species declines, Australia must urgently reassess the extinction vulnerability of fire-impacted species and assist the recovery of populations in both burnt and unburnt areas. Population recovery requires multipronged strategies aimed at ameliorating current and fire-induced threats, including proactively protecting unburnt habitats.

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Fig. 1: Vertebrate fauna habitat burned during the 2019–2020 mega-fires.
Fig. 2: Proportional impact of the 2019–2020 mega-fires on the habitats of 832 species.

Data availability

All datasets used in this analysis are available via the citations identified in the Methods. The raw data used to create Figs. 1 and 2 are available in Supplementary Table 1 and in figshare with the identifier

Code availability

The code used in this study is freely available at

Change history

  • 10 August 2020

    The Data availability and Code availability statements have been amended to update the links where the data and code are deposited, respectively. The second sentence of the Data availability statement now reads: ‘The raw data used to create Figs. 1 and 2 are available in Supplementary Table 1 and in figshare with the identifier’ The Code availability statement now reads ‘The code used in this study is freely available at’


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We thank S. Legge and C. Pavey for their critical comments on an early version of the manuscript and the Commonwealth Government for providing both species and fire datasets. A.I.T.T. is supported by an ARC DECRA Fellowship.

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Authors and Affiliations



J.E.M.W. conceived the idea. M.W., J.E.M.W., A.I.T.T., J.Q.R., B.A.W., A.E.R., S.L.M., H.J.M., M.M., H.P.P., S.J.V., J.L.O., E.J.M., A.C.G. and L.J.S. designed the research. A.E.R. and S.L.M. extracted non-threatened species data. M.W. and B.A.W. assembled and revised the database and analysed the data. M.W., A.I.T.T., J.Q.R., B.A.W., A.E.R., S.L.M., H.J.M., M.M., H.P.P., S.J.V., J.L.O., E.J.M., A.C.G., J.C.Z.W., S.T.G., M.L., B.C.S., J.C., D.G.N., D.B.L., R.M.K., J.S.S., L.J.S. and J.E.M.W. wrote and edited the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Michelle Ward.

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Supplementary information

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Table 1

This file contains all taxa impacted by the 2019–2020 mega-fires, including their approximate habitat loss, approximate proportional habitat loss and approximate habitat remaining.

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Ward, M., Tulloch, A.I.T., Radford, J.Q. et al. Impact of 2019–2020 mega-fires on Australian fauna habitat. Nat Ecol Evol 4, 1321–1326 (2020).

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