Loss of diversity in the gut microbiome can persist for extended periods after antibiotic treatment, impacting microbiome function, antimicrobial resistance and probably host health. Despite widespread antibiotic use, our understanding of the species and metabolic functions contributing to gut microbiome recovery is limited. Using data from 4 discovery cohorts in 3 continents comprising >500 microbiome profiles from 117 individuals, we identified 21 bacterial species exhibiting robust association with ecological recovery post antibiotic therapy. Functional and growth-rate analysis showed that recovery is supported by enrichment in specific carbohydrate-degradation and energy-production pathways. Association rule mining on 782 microbiome profiles from the MEDUSA database enabled reconstruction of the gut microbial ‘food web’, identifying many recovery-associated bacteria as keystone species, with the ability to use host- and diet-derived energy sources, and support repopulation of other gut species. Experiments in a mouse model recapitulated the ability of recovery-associated bacteria (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) to promote recovery with synergistic effects, providing a boost of two orders of magnitude to microbial abundance in early time points and faster maturation of microbial diversity. The identification of specific species and metabolic functions promoting recovery opens up opportunities for rationally determining pre- and probiotic formulations offering protection from long-term consequences of frequent antibiotic usage.
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Illumina sequencing data for this study (mouse models) are available from the Sequence Read Archive under project ID SRP142225. Samples are labelled in SRA with a shorthand (for example, PBS6D22, where ‘PBS’ represents the gavage condition, ‘6’ represents the cage number, and ‘D22’ represents the day of sampling).
Analysis scripts used for generating the figures in this study are available at https://github.com/CSB5/Recovery_Determinants_Study.
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This work was supported by funding from the National Healthcare Group (NHG-CSCS/12008), the National Medical Research Council, the National Research Foundation and A*STAR, Singapore.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–11, Table 1 and Note 1.
Species abundance profile across samples from the different cohorts.
Differentially abundant species in recoverers versus non-recoverers.
Inferred metabolic pathway abundances across samples from the different cohorts.
Inferred CAZyme abundances across samples from the different cohorts.
PTR values for different species and the computed community growth rate per sample from the different cohorts.
Microbial dependency relationships in the gut microbiome predicted via association rule mining on the MEDUSA database.
Metabolic support index values for interactions between various RAB species and the corresponding top 10% of interactions.
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Chng, K.R., Ghosh, T.S., Tan, Y.H. et al. Metagenome-wide association analysis identifies microbial determinants of post-antibiotic ecological recovery in the gut. Nat Ecol Evol 4, 1256–1267 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1236-0
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