Don’t stressor the small stuff

Freshwaters are subject to a multitude of threats, but complex interactions among stressors are context-dependant and less common than expected.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Nutrient pollution of freshwaters leads to intense blooms of cyanobacteria in a process called eutrophication.

Institute of Environmental Change and Society.


  1. 1.

    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends Vol. 1 (Island Press, 2005).

  2. 2.

    Leavitt, P. R. et al. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 2330–2348 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Williamson, C. E., Saros, J. E. & Schindler, D. W. Science 323, 887–888 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Birk, S. et al. Nat. Ecol. Evol. (2020).

  5. 5.

    Hutchinson, G. E. A Treatise on Limnology, Part: 1 Geography and Physics of Lakes Vol. I (John Wiley & Sons, 1957).

  6. 6.

    Schindler, D. W. & Vallentyne, J. R. The Algal Bowl: Overfertilization of the World’s Freshwaters and Estuaries (Routledge 2008).

  7. 7.

    Ripple, W. J. et al. BioScience 67, 1026–1028 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Le Moal, M. et al. Sci. Total Environ. 651, 1–11 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    European Water: Assessment of Status and Pressures 2018 EEA Report 7/2018 (European Environment Agency, 2018).

  10. 10.

    Hering, D. et al. Sci. Total Environ. 503, 10–21 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter R. Leavitt.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Leavitt, P.R. Don’t stressor the small stuff. Nat Ecol Evol (2020).

Download citation