Fig. 4: Character trees based on hierarchical clustering of annotated subsets of differentially expressed genes. | Nature Ecology & Evolution

Fig. 4: Character trees based on hierarchical clustering of annotated subsets of differentially expressed genes.

From: Co-option of wing-patterning genes underlies the evolution of the treehopper helmet

Fig. 4

a,b, Anatomical structure development genes (GO:0048856). Leafhopper (H. vitripennis) mesonotum and pronotum samples are most similar to each other (a), while treehopper (E. carinata) helmets (b) are most similar to wings. c,d, Signalling genes (GO:0023052). Leafhopper pronotum and mesonotum samples cluster with legs (c), while treehopper helmets (d) are most similar to wings. e,f, Transcription factor activity genes (GO:0003700). Clustering patterns in both leafhoppers (e) and treehoppers (f) match the predictions of serial homology (Fig. 2a), with the exception that legs and ovipositors did not form a separate cluster in the leafhopper. Numbers beside labels indicate features differentially expressed (DE) across body regions and the total number of features in each subset. Body regions studied are false-coloured on the leafhopper (left) and treehopper (right) nymphs at top. A single asterisk indicates support >90, and two asterisks indicate support of 100. Colour coding and abbreviations are used as in Fig. 2.

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