Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Reply to: Sources of C30 steroid biomarkers in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian rocks and oils

The Original Article was published on 25 November 2019

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: C30 steroids in Rhizaria.

Data availability

All relevant data are shown in Fig. 1. Chlorarachniophytes can be sourced from the Bigelow NCMA culture collection (https://ncma.bigelow.org/cms/index/index/: CCMP 239, 3166 and 2755).

References

  1. Love, G. D. et al. Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period. Nature 457, 718–721 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Zumberge, J. A. et al. Demosponge steroid biomarker 26-methylstigmastane provides evidence for Neoproterozoic animals. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 1709–1714 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. McCaffrey, M. A. et al. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 529–532 (1994).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Nettersheim, B. J. et al. Putative sponge biomarkers in unicellular Rhizaria question an early rise of animals. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3, 577–581 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Love, G. D. et al. Sources of C30 steroid biomarkers in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian rocks and oils. Nat. Ecol. Evol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1048-2 (2019).

  6. Véron, B., Billard, C., Dauguet, J. C. & Hartmann, M. A. Sterol composition of Phaeodactylum tricornutum as influenced by growth temperature and light spectral quality. Lipids 31, 989–994 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bergquist, P. R., Hofheinz, W. & Oesterhelt, G. Sterol composition and the classification of the Demospongiae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 8, 423–435 (1980).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Grabenstatter, J. et al. Identification of 24-n-propylidenecholesterol in a member of the Foraminifera. Org. Geochem. 63, 145–151 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Leblond, J. D. et al. Lipid composition of chlorarachniophytes (Chlorarachniophyceae) from the genera Bigelowiella, Gymnochlora, and Lotharella. J. Phycol. 41, 311–321 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Gold, D. A. et al. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 2684–2689 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

C.H., B.J.N., I.B. and J.J.B. wrote the reply with input from A.S., J.M.H., F.N., M.L., C.S., R.S., E.C.M.N., P.D.D., J.P., S.S.B., K.Z., M.K. and M.S.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Christian Hallmann or Benjamin J. Nettersheim.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hallmann, C., Nettersheim, B.J., Brocks, J.J. et al. Reply to: Sources of C30 steroid biomarkers in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian rocks and oils. Nat Ecol Evol 4, 37–39 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1049-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1049-1

This article is cited by

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing