Modularity of the life cycle

Life stages in Bacillus subtilis are controlled by regulatory blocks that can be kept or lost across species in response to selection in different environments.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    Bird, C. J. J. Appl. Phycol. 7, 255 (1995).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    van Gestel, J., Ackermann, M. & Wagner, A. Nat. Ecol. Evol. (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Barrick, J. E. et al. Nature 461, 1243–1247 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Saxer, G. et al. PLoS Genet. 10, e1004872 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dettman, J. R. et al. Mol. Ecol. 21, 2058–2077 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Lang, G. I. & Desai, M. M. Genomics 104, 412–416 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lind, P. A., Libby, E., Herzog, J. & Rainey, P. B. eLife 8, e38822 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eric Libby.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Libby, E. Modularity of the life cycle. Nat Ecol Evol 3, 1142–1143 (2019).

Download citation


Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing