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Influenza evolution with little host selection

Nature Ecology & Evolutionvolume 3pages159160 (2019) | Download Citation

Influenza viruses undergo rapid antigenic evolution. Analysis of a large dataset of influenza virus sequences, using host age as a proxy for immune experience, shows no evidence for immune positive selection driving antigenic evolution in individual infected humans.

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Author information


  1. Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI, USA

    • Katarina M. Braun
    •  & Thomas C. Friedrich
  2. Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, WI, USA

    • Thomas C. Friedrich


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Thomas C. Friedrich.

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