Advancing phenology is one of the most visible effects of climate change on plant communities, and has been especially pronounced in temperature-limited tundra ecosystems. However, phenological responses have been shown to differ greatly between species, with some species shifting phenology more than others. We analysed a database of 42,689 tundra plant phenological observations to show that warmer temperatures are leading to a contraction of community-level flowering seasons in tundra ecosystems due to a greater advancement in the flowering times of late-flowering species than early-flowering species. Shorter flowering seasons with a changing climate have the potential to alter trophic interactions in tundra ecosystems. Interestingly, these findings differ from those of warmer ecosystems, where early-flowering species have been found to be more sensitive to temperature change, suggesting that community-level phenological responses to warming can vary greatly between biomes.

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We are grateful to the many individuals who established experiments and collected detailed phenological observations. There are too many to name them all; however, we especially thank: M. Dalle Fratte, D. Cooley, O. Durey, C. Eckert, J. F. Johnstone, C. Kennedy, V. Lamarre, G. Levasseur, C. Spiech, J. Svoboda and R. Wising; the Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park staff, including E. McLeod, S. McLeod, R. Joe, P. Lennie, D. Arey, L. Meyook, J. McLeod, P. Foisy, C. Gordon, J. Hansen, A. Rufus and R. Gordon; Quttinirpaaq National Park staff; the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring team; and Warming and species Removal in Mountains (WaRM) coordinators N. Sanders, A. Classen and M. Sundqvist. These observations were made possible with the support of many funding agencies and grants, including: ArcticNet; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the Canadian International Polar Year Program; the Polar Continental Shelf Program of Natural Resources Canada; the Danish Environmental Protection Agency; the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; the National Geographic Society; the US National Science Foundation (grant numbers PLR1525636, PLR1504141, PLR1433063, PLR1107381, PLR0119279, PLR0902125, PLR0856728, PLR1312402, PLR1019324, LTER 1026415, OPP1525636, OPP9907185, DEB1637686, 0856710, 9714103, 0632263, 0856516, 1432277, 1432982, 1504381, 1504224, 1433063, 0856728, 0612534, 0119279 and 9421755; the Danish National Research Foundation (grant CENPERM DNRF100); the Danish Council for Independent Research (Natural Sciences grant DFF 4181-00565); the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant: RU 1536/3-1); the Natural Environment Research Council (grant NE/M016323/1); the Department of Energy (grant SC006982); a Semper Ardens grant from the Carlsberg Foundation to N. J. Sanders; and an INTERACT Transnational Access grant.

Author information


  1. Pacific Northwest Research Station, US Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, Olympia, WA, USA

    • Janet S. Prevéy
  2. WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research , Davos, Switzerland

    • Janet S. Prevéy
    • , Christian Rixen
    • , Chelsea L. Chisholm
    •  & Sonja Wipf
  3. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    • Nadja Rüger
  4. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama

    • Nadja Rüger
  5. Department of Bioscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

    • Toke T. Høye
    •  & Niels Martin Schmidt
  6. Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

    • Anne D. Bjorkman
  7. Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Frankfurt, Germany

    • Anne D. Bjorkman
  8. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

    • Isla H. Myers-Smith
  9. Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

    • Sarah C. Elmendorf
    • , Jane G. Smith
    •  & Katharine N. Suding
  10. Northern Great Plains Inventory and Monitoring Network, National Park Service, Rapid City, SD, USA

    • Isabel W. Ashton
  11. Department of Science and High Technology, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Como, Italy

    • Nicoletta Cannone
  12. Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Chelsea L. Chisholm
  13. Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    • Karin Clark
  14. Institute for Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway

    • Elisabeth J. Cooper
    •  & Philipp R. Semenchuk
  15. Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Bo Elberling
  16. Faroese Museum of Natural History, Hoyvík, Faroe Islands

    • Anna Maria Fosaa
  17. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    • Greg H. R. Henry
  18. Biology Department, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, USA

    • Robert D. Hollister
  19. Institute of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

    • Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir
  20. University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway

    • Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir
  21. Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway

    • Kari Klanderud
  22. Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    • Christopher W. Kopp
  23. Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivieres, Québec, Canada

    • Esther Lévesque
  24. Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA

    • Marguerite Mauritz
    •  & Edward Schuur
  25. Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

    • Ulf Molau
  26. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA, USA

    • Susan M. Natali
  27. Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA

    • Steven. F. Oberbauer
    •  & Tiffany Troxler
  28. Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

    • Zoe A. Panchen
  29. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

    • Eric Post
  30. Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    • Sabine B. Rumpf
    •  & Philipp R. Semenchuk
  31. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

    • Katharine N. Suding
  32. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

    • Ørjan Totland
  33. Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

    • Susanna Venn
  34. Research Centre for Applied Alpine Ecology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    • Carl-Henrik Wahren
  35. UArctic and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

    • Jeffrey M. Welker
  36. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska, Anchorage, AK, USA

    • Jeffrey M. Welker


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J.S.P. and C.R. designed and led the study. J.S.P. and C.R. led the collection of data for the phenology database. J.S.P., N.R., A.D.B., I.H.M.-S. and S.C.E. performed the statistical analyses. J.S.P., C.R., N.R., T.T.H., A.D.B., I.H.M.-S. and S.C.E. drafted the paper. J.S.P., C.R., A.D.B., I.H.M.-S., I.W.A., N.C., K.C., C.C., E.J.C., B.E., A.M.F., G.H.R.H., R.D.H., I.S.J., K.K., C.W.K., E.L., M.M., U.M., S.N., S.O., Z.A.P., E.P., S.B.R., N.M.S., E.S., P.R.S., J.G.S., K.N.S., Ø.T., T.T., S.V., C.-H.W., J.M.W. and S.W. contributed data. All authors were involved in writing and editing the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Janet S. Prevéy.

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