Microbes rarely exist in isolation, rather, they form intricate multi-species communities that colonize our bodies and inserted medical devices. However, the efficacy of antimicrobials is measured in clinical laboratories exclusively using microbial monocultures. Here, to determine how multi-species interactions mediate selection for resistance during antibiotic treatment, particularly following drug withdrawal, we study a laboratory community consisting of two microbial pathogens. Single-species dose responses are a poor predictor of community dynamics during treatment so, to better understand those dynamics, we introduce the concept of a dose-response mosaic, a multi-dimensional map that indicates how species’ abundance is affected by changes in abiotic conditions. We study the dose-response mosaic of a two-species community with a ‘Gene × Gene × Environment × Environment’ ecological interaction whereby Candida glabrata, which is resistant to the antifungal drug fluconazole, competes for survival with Candida albicans, which is susceptible to fluconazole. The mosaic comprises several zones that delineate abiotic conditions where each species dominates. Zones are separated by loci of bifurcations and tipping points that identify what environmental changes can trigger the loss of either species. Observations of the laboratory communities corroborated theory, showing that changes in both antibiotic concentration and nutrient availability can push populations beyond tipping points, thus creating irreversible shifts in community composition from drug-sensitive to drug-resistant species. This has an important consequence: resistant species can increase in frequency even if an antibiotic is withdrawn because, unwittingly, a tipping point was passed during treatment.

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In memory of our friend and colleague Ken Haynes who sadly passed away on 19 March 2018.

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Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally to this work: Robert E. Beardmore, Emily Cook.

  2. Deceased: Ken Haynes


  1. Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK

    • Robert E. Beardmore
    • , Emily Cook
    • , Susanna Nilsson
    • , Ken Haynes
    •  & Ivana Gudelj
  2. School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri at Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA

    • Adam R. Smith
    • , Brooke D. Esquivel
    •  & Theodore C. White
  3. MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen, UK

    • Anna Tillmann
    • , Neil A. R. Gow
    •  & Alistair J. P. Brown


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I.G. and R.E.B. conceived the idea. R.E.B., I.G. and E.C. designed all experiments (apart from Supplementary Fig. 5). T.C.W. designed the experiment in Slementary Fig. 5. E.C., S.N., A.R.S., A.T., B.D.E., K.H., N.A.R.G. and A.J.P.B. carried out experiments. I.G. and R.E.B. developed and numerically simulated the mathematical model. R.E.B., I.G., E.C., T.C.W., K.H., N.A.R.G. and A.J.P.B. discussed the results. R.E.B., E.C. and I.G. wrote the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Robert E. Beardmore or Ivana Gudelj.

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