Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Lack of support for adaptation of post-glacial horses to woodlands

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Presence and frequencies of wild horse (E. ferus) remains in the vertebrate record of Mesolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in the CEL 11.7–4 ka.


  1. 1.

    Sandoval-Castellanos, E., Wutke, S., Gonzalez-Salazar, C. & Ludwig, A. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 1816–1819 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Theuerkauf, M. et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 90, 183–198 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Marquer, L. et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 90, 199–216 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sommer, R. S., Benecke, N., Lougas, L., Nelle, O. & Schmölcke, U. J. Quat. Sci. 26, 805–812 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kalis, A. J., Merkt, J. & Wunderlich, J. Quat. Sci. Rev. 22, 33–79 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Sommer, R. S. et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 27, 714–733 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sommer, R. S., Fahlke, J., Schmölcke, U., Benecke, N. & Zachos, F. E. Mamm. Rev. 39, 1–16 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Schmölcke, U. & Zachos, F. E. Mamm. Rev. 70, 329–344 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Pokorny, P. et al. Holocene 25, 716–726 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kunes, P. et al. Quat. Sci. Rev. 116, 15–27 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to the German Research Foundation (DFG) for founding the project ‘Climate–Landscape–Fauna–Man’ (SO-861/2-1). We are grateful to A. Ludwig and colleagues for personal information and publishing inspiring results, stimulating the debate about the interactions of climate, humans, vegetation and megafauna in the European Holocene primeval landscape.

Author information




R.S.S. and U.S. planned the project ‘Climate–Landscape–Fauna–Man’ and C.H. compiled the frequencies of megafauna species in archaeological sites in the frame of her PhD work. R.S.S. wrote the text and designed the figures. All authors contributed to the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert S. Sommer.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sommer, R.S., Hegge, C. & Schmölcke, U. Lack of support for adaptation of post-glacial horses to woodlands. Nat Ecol Evol 2, 582–583 (2018).

Download citation


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing