Redundant regulation

Control of gene activity through transcriptional regulatory elements is a major driving force in human evolution. A new study measures nascent transcription directly and shows that sequence, activity and three-dimensional organization of transcriptional regulatory elements all contribute to the evolution of gene activity within primate CD4+ T cells.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: PRO-Seq signal identifies TREs and quantifies transcription activity directly.


  1. 1.

    Villar, D., Flicek, P. & Odom, D. T. Nat. Rev. Genet. 15, 221–233 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Siepel, A. & Arbiza, L. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 29, 81–89 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Reilly, S. K. & Noonan, J. P. Annu. Rev. Genom. Hum. Genet. 17, 45–67 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Danko, C. G. et al. Nat. Ecol. Evol. (2018).

  5. 5.

    Kwak, H., Fuda, N. J., Core, L. J. & Lis, J. T. Science 339, 950–953 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Lacadie, S. A., Ibrahim, M. M., Gokhale, S. A. & Ohler, U. FEBS J. 283, 4214–4222 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Thakore, P. I. et al. Nat. Methods 12, 1143–1149 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Arbiza, L. et al. Nat. Genet. 45, 723–729 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Danko, C. G. et al. Nat. Methods 12, 433–438 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jin, Y., Eser, U., Struhl, K. & Churchman, L. S. Cell 170, 889–898 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Stubbington, M. J. T., Rozenblatt-Rosen, O., Regev, A. & Teichmann, S. A. Science 358, 58–63 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Scott A. Lacadie or Uwe Ohler.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lacadie, S.A., Ohler, U. Redundant regulation. Nat Ecol Evol 2, 418–419 (2018).

Download citation