Recent years have seen a surge of interest in ecosystem multifunctionality, a concept that has developed in the largely separate fields of biodiversity–ecosystem function and land management research. Here we discuss the merit of the multifunctionality concept, the advances it has delivered, the challenges it faces and solutions to these challenges. This involves the redefinition of multifunctionality as a property that exists at two levels: ecosystem function multifunctionality and ecosystem service multifunctionality. The framework presented provides a road map for the development of multifunctionality measures that are robust, quantifiable and relevant to both fundamental ecological science and ecosystem management.
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C. Penone, M. Felipe Lucia and M. Perring provided useful comments on earlier versions of the paper. P.M. acknowledges support from the German Research Foundation (DFG; MA 7144/1-1). F.T.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement 647038 (BIODESERT)). We thank the FunDivEUROPE consortium (EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), grant agreement 265171) for support and for the data used in the examples.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Supplementary Tables 1 and 2.
R based tutorial demonstrating how ecosystem function and ecosystem service multifunctionality can be quantified, as shown in examples 1 and 2, and the decision-making process behind this
Data used in Examples 1 and 2. Originally used in ref. 51. See ref. 51 for methods
R scripts for the quantification of EF-multifunctionality and ES-multifunctionality, used to compute example 1
R scripts for the quantification of EF-multifunctionality and ES-multifunctionality, used to compute example 2
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Manning, P., van der Plas, F., Soliveres, S. et al. Redefining ecosystem multifunctionality. Nat Ecol Evol 2, 427–436 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0461-7
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