Sherkat, D. E. Religion and scientific literacy in the United States. Soc. Sci. Quart. 92, 1134–1150 (2011).
McKeachie, W. J., Lin, Y.-G. & Strayer, J. Creationist vs. evolutionary beliefs: effects on learning biology. Am. Biol. Teach. 64, 189–192 (2002).
Festinger, L. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. (Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, 1957).
Kahan, D. M. et al. The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2, 732–735 (2012).
Nyhan, B. & Reifler, J. The roles of information deficits and identity threat in the prevalence of misperceptions. Preprint at http://www.dartmouth.edu/~nyhan/opening-political-mind.pdf.
Steele, C. in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol. 21 (ed. Berkowitz, L.) 261–302 (Academic, New York, 1988).
Nickerson, R. S. Confirmation bias: a ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Rev. General. Psychol. 2, 175–220 (1998).
Dodick, J. & Orion, N. Introducing evolution to non-biology majors via the fossil record: a case study from the Israeli high school system. Am. Biol. Teach. 65, 185–190 (2003).
Allum, N., Sturgis, P., Tabourazi, D. & Brunton-Smith, I. Science knowledge and attitudes across cultures: a meta-analysis. Public Underst. Sci. 17, 35–54 (2008).
Bauer, M. W. The evolution of public understanding of science-discourse and comparative evidence. Sci.Technol. Soc. 14, 221–240 (2009).
Fischhoff, B. Risk perception and communication unplugged — 20 years of process. Risk Anal. 15, 137–145 (1995).
Smith, P. J. et al. Parental delay or refusal of vaccine doses, childhood vaccination coverage at 24 months of age, and the health belief model. Public Health Rep. 126, 135–146 (2011).
Eveland, W. P. & Cooper, K. E. An integrated model of communication influence on beliefs. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14088–14095 (2013).
Joslyn, M. R. & Haider-Markel, D. P. Who knows best? Education, partisanship, and contested facts. Politics Policy 42, 919–947 (2014).
Burke, K. L. 8 myths about public understanding of science. American Scientist (9 February 2015).
Raine, L., Funk, C. & Page, D. An Elaboration of AAAS Scientists’ Views (Pew Research Center, 2015); http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2015/07/Report-AAAS-Members-Elaboration_FINAL.pdf.
Lawson, A. E. & Worsnop, W. A. Learning about evolution and rejecting a belief in special creation: effects of reflective reasoning skill, prior knowledge, prior belief and religious commitment. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 29, 143–166 (1992).
Williams, J. D. Evolution versus creationism: a matter of acceptance versus belief. J. Biol. Educ. 49, 322–333 (2015).
Mead, R., Hejmadi, M. & Hurst, L. D. Teaching genetics prior to teaching evolution improves evolution understanding but not acceptance. PLoS Biol. 15, e2002255 (2017).
Donnelly, L. A., Kazempour, M. & Amirshokoohi, A. High school students’ perceptions of evolution instruction: acceptance and evolution learning experiences. Res. Sci. Educ. 39, 643–660 (2008).
Rutledge, M. L. & Warden, M. A. Evolutionary theory, the nature of science & high school biology teachers: critical relationships. Am. Biol. Teach. 62, 23–31 (2000).
Ehrle, E. B. Notes on the teaching of evolution. Am. Biol. Teach. 22, 418–419 (1960).
Banet, E. & Ayuso, G. E. Teaching of biological inheritance and evolution of living beings in secondary school. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 25, 373–407 (2003).
Lawson, A. E. & Thompson, L. D. Formal reasoning ability and misconceptions concerning genetics and natural selection. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 25, 733–746 (1988).
Lawson, A. E. & Weser, J. The rejection of nonscientific beliefs about life: effects of instruction and reasoning skills. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 27, 589–606 (1990).
Deniz, H., Donnelly, L. A. & Yilmaz, I. Exploring the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among Turkish preservice biology teachers: toward a more informative conceptual ecology for biological evolution. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 45, 420–443 (2008).
Woods, C. S. & Scharmann, L. C. High school students’ perceptions of evolutionary theory. E. J. Sci. Edu. 6, http://ejse.southwestern.edu/article/view/7676 (2001).
Drummond, C. & Fischhoff, B. Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 9587–9592 (2017).
Hartigan, J. A. & Hartigan, P. M. The dip test of unimodality. Ann. Stat. 13, 70–84 (1985).
Nadelson, L. S. & Sinatra, G. M. Shifting acceptance of evolution: promising evidence of the influence of the understanding evolution website. Researcher 23, 13–29 (2010).
Berkman, M. B. & Plutzer, E. Defeating creationism in the courtroom, but not in the classroom. Science 331, 404–405 (2011).
Nyhan, B., Reifler, J., Richey, S. & Freed, G. L. Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 133, E835–E842 (2014).
Lewandowsky, S., Gignac, G. E. & Oberauer, K. The role of conspiracist ideation and worldviews in predicting rejection of science. PLoS ONE 8, e75637 (2013).
Dixon, R. M. & Jones, J. A. Conspiracist ideation as a predictor of climate-science rejection. Psychol. Sci. 26, 664–666 (2015).
Rutledge, M. L. & Sadler, K. C. Reliability of the measure of acceptance of the theory of evolution (MATE) instrument with university students. Am. Biol. Teach. 69, 332–335 (2007).
Ethical Guidelines for Education Research (BERA, 2011).
Rutledge, M. L. & Warden, M. A. The development and validation of the measure of acceptance of the theory of evolution instrument. Sch. Sci. Math. 99, 13–18 (1999).
Rutledge, M. L. & Sadler, K. C. University students’ acceptance of biological theories — is evolution really different? J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 41, 38–43 (2011).
Lovely, E. C. & Kondrick, L. C. Teaching evolution: challenging religious preconceptions. Integr. Comp. Biol. 48, 164–174 (2008).
Bowling, B. V. et al. Development and evaluation of a genetics literacy assessment instrument for undergraduates. Genetics 178, 15–22 (2008).
Lewis, J. & Wood-Robinson, C. Genes, chromosomes, cell division and inheritance — do students see any relationship? Int. J. Sci. Educ. 22, 177–195 (2000).