Behaviour is a key interface between an animal’s genome and its environment. Repeatable individual differences in behaviour have been extensively documented in animals, but the molecular underpinnings of behavioural variation among individuals within natural populations remain largely unknown. Here, we offer a critical review of when molecular techniques may yield new insights, and we provide specific guidance on how and whether the latest tools available are appropriate given different resources, system and organismal constraints, and experimental designs. Integrating molecular genetic techniques with other strategies to study the proximal causes of behaviour provides opportunities to expand rapidly into new avenues of exploration. Such endeavours will enable us to better understand how repeatable individual differences in behaviour have evolved, how they are expressed and how they can be maintained within natural populations of animals.

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The workshop that led to this series of papers was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF-IOS 1623898; PI: A.M.B.), the NSF Sociogenomics Research Coordination Network and the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign. We wish to thank other workshop participants for their feedback in the development of these ideas and comments on drafts of the manuscript.

Author information


  1. Department of BioSciences, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

    • Sarah E. Bengston
  2. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

    • Romain A. Dahan
  3. Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, and Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA

    • Zoe Donaldson
  4. Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, USA

    • Steven M. Phelps
  5. Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands

    • Kees van Oers
  6. Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

    • Andrew Sih
  7. Department of Animal Biology, The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA

    • Alison M. Bell
  8. Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA

    • Alison M. Bell


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S.E.B. contributed to conception of the manuscript, drafted sections of the manuscript, contributed to the conceptualization and generation of figures and tables, edited the manuscript and facilitated the collaboration between authors. R.A.D. drafted sections of the manuscript, contributed to the conceptualization and generation of figures and tables and provided feedback. Z.D. contributed to conception of the manuscript, drafted sections of the manuscript and provided feedback. S.M.P. contributed to conception of the manuscript, drafted sections of the manuscript and provided feedback. K.v.O. contributed to conception of the manuscript and provided feedback. A.S. contributed to conception of the manuscript and provided feedback. A.M.B. contributed to the conception of the manuscript, drafted sections of the manuscript, provided feedback and edited the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Correspondence to Sarah E. Bengston.

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