Reciprocal interactions between hosts, their symbionts and their oncobiota (cancer cell communities) are yet to be studied in detail. Considering malignant cells in addition to the holobiont perspective allows greater understanding of the processes governing both host phenotypes and cancer dynamics.

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Acknowledgements

We thank R. Poulin for relevant comments on an earlier version of this paper. This work was supported by the ANR (Blanc project EVOCAN) by the CNRS (INEE), by the Montpellier Hérault Sport Club, by an International Associated Laboratory Project France/Australia and A. Hoffmann (MAVA Fondation). This article is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague, Janice Britton-Davidian.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Centre de Recherches Ecologiques et Evolutives sur le Cancer/Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle. Unité Mixte de Recherche 5290 (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Institut de recherche pour le développement, Université de Montpellier), 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, Montpellier, Cedex 5, 34394, France

    • Frédéric Thomas
    • , Camille Jacqueline
    • , Tazzio Tissot
    • , Morgane Henard
    •  & François Renaud
  2. Station d’Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5321 (Centre national de la recherche scientifique – Université Paul Sabatier), 2 route du CNRS, 09200, Moulis, France

    • Simon Blanchet
  3. Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5174 (Centre national de la recherche scientifique – Université Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062, Toulouse, Cedex 4, France

    • Géraldine Loot
  4. Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes et Speciation, Unité Propre de Recherche 9034, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • Erika Dawson
    •  & Frédéric Mery
  5. Instiute for Integrative of the Cell, UMR 9198, CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • Jacques Montagne
  6. Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, 3216, Australia

    • Christa Beckmann
    • , Peter A. Biro
    • , Rodrigo Hamede
    •  & Beata Ujvari
  7. Centre for Behavioural and Physiological Ecology, Zoology School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, 2351, Australia

    • Christa Beckmann
  8. School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia

    • Rodrigo Hamede
    •  & Beata Ujvari

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Frédéric Thomas.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0343-z

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