Negative density dependence mediates biodiversity–productivity relationships across scales


Regional species diversity generally increases with primary productivity whereas local diversity–productivity relationships are highly variable. This scale-dependence of the biodiversity–productivity relationship highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms that govern variation in species composition among local communities, which is known as β-diversity. Hypotheses to explain changes in β-diversity with productivity invoke multiple mechanisms operating at local and regional scales, but the relative importance of these mechanisms is unknown. Here we show that changes in the strength of local density-dependent interactions within and among tree species explain changes in β-diversity across a subcontinental-productivity gradient. Stronger conspecific relative to heterospecific negative density dependence in more productive regions was associated with higher local diversity, weaker habitat partitioning (less species sorting), and homogenization of community composition among sites (lower β-diversity). Regional processes associated with changes in species pools had limited effects on β-diversity. Our study suggests that systematic shifts in the strength of local interactions within and among species might generally contribute to some of the most prominent but poorly understood gradients in global biodiversity.

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Figure 1: Hypothesized influences of regional and local processes on patterns of biodiversity across regions that vary in primary productivity.
Figure 2: Study area in western North America and changes in tree species richness and composition with NPP.
Figure 3: Relationships between β-diversity, environmental heterogeneity and NPP.
Figure 4: Conspecific and heterospecific negative density dependence (CNDD and HNDD), NPP, and effects on β-diversity.


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We thank I. Jiménez, S. Tello and D. Vela for helpful comments; and the Forest Inventory and Analysis project. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DEB 1256788 and 1557094 (to J.A.M.) and DEB 1256819 (to L.A.B. and R.T.B.).

Author information

J.A.L., J.A.M., L.A.B. and R.T.B. conceived the study. J.A.M., L.A.B. and R.T.B. obtained the funding. J.A.L. executed the statistical analyses and wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and J.A.L., J.A.M., R.T.B., L.A.B. and C.P.C. contributed to revisions.

Correspondence to Joseph A. LaManna.

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LaManna, J.A., Belote, R.T., Burkle, L.A. et al. Negative density dependence mediates biodiversity–productivity relationships across scales. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 1107–1115 (2017).

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