Similarities in planning, development and culture within urban areas may lead to the convergence of ecological processes on continental scales. Transdisciplinary, multi-scale research is now needed to understand and predict the impact of human-dominated landscapes on ecosystem structure and function.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Peter M. Groffman is at Advanced Science Research Center at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031, USA.

    • Peter M. Groffman
  2. Meghan Avolio is at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, Annapolis Maryland 21401, USA.

    • Meghan Avolio
  3. Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Sarah E. Hobbie and Kristen C. Nelson are at University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA.

    • Jeannine Cavender-Bares
    • , Sarah E. Hobbie
    •  & Kristen C. Nelson
  4. Neil D. Bettez is at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA.

    • Neil D. Bettez
  5. J. Morgan Grove is at USDA Forest Service, Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.

    • J. Morgan Grove
  6. Susannah B. Lerman is at USDA Forest Service, USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.

    • Susannah B. Lerman
  7. Kelli L. Larson and Sharon J. Hall are at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281, USA.

    • Sharon J. Hall
    •  & Kelli L. Larson
  8. Dexter H. Locke and Rinku Roy Chowdhury are at Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA.

    • Dexter H. Locke
    •  & Rinku Roy Chowdhury
  9. James B. Heffernan is at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

    • James B. Heffernan
  10. Jennifer L. Morse is at Environmental Science and Management, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA.

    • Jennifer L. Morse
  11. Christopher Neill is at Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts 02540, USA.

    • Christopher Neill
  12. Jarlath O’Neil-Dunne is at University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 USA.

    • Jarlath O’Neil-Dunne
  13. Diane E. Pataki is at University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

    • Diane E. Pataki
  14. Colin Polsky is at Florida Atlantic University, Davie, Florida 33314, USA.

    • Colin Polsky
  15. Tara L. E. Trammell is at University of Delaware, Delaware 19716, USA.

    • Tara L. E. Trammell

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter M. Groffman.