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Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female Drosophila


Female aggression towards other females is associated with reproduction in many taxa, and traditionally thought to be related to the protection or provisioning of offspring, such as through increased resource acquisition. However, the underlying reproductive factors causing aggressive behaviour in females remain unknown. Here we show that female aggression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is strongly stimulated by the receipt of sperm at mating, and in part by an associated seminal fluid protein, the sex peptide. We further show that the post-mating increase in female aggression is decoupled from the costs of egg production and from post-mating decreases in sexual receptivity. Our results indicate that male ejaculates can have a surprisingly direct influence on aggression in recipient females. Male ejaculate traits thus influence the female social competitive environment, with potentially far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences.

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Figure 1: Two proposed pathways for mating-induced female aggression.
Figure 2: Mated females spend more time fighting than virgins but do not win more fights.
Figure 3: Effects of male ejaculate components, female egg production and sex peptide receptor on total contest duration.


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This study was funded by NERC (NE/J018937/1) and BBSRC (BB/K014544/1) fellowships to S.W. and scholarships from the Rhodes Trust and St John’s College, Oxford to E.B.

Author information




E.B., S.W. and N.S conceived the project. E.B. and S.W. designed the experiments, with S.F.G. providing additional advice on experimental design for later experiments. E.B., S.B., C.P. and A.R. performed the behavioural experiments and scored the behavioural data. E.B. analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. S.W., S.F.G., N.S., E.E.-C. and J.A.T. discussed the results and contributed to the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Eleanor Bath.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Figures

Supplementary Figures 1–4 (PDF 272 kb)

Supplementary Video 1

Annotated examples of female aggressive behaviour as observed and scored in this study. (MP4 28465 kb)

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Bath, E., Bowden, S., Peters, C. et al. Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female Drosophila. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0154 (2017).

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