The history of the life–Earth system can be divided into five ‘energetic’ epochs, each featuring the evolution of life forms that can exploit a new source of energy. These sources are: geochemical energy, sunlight, oxygen, flesh and fire. The first two were present at the start, but oxygen, flesh and fire are all consequences of evolutionary events. Since no category of energy source has disappeared, this has, over time, resulted in an expanding realm of the sources of energy available to living organisms and a concomitant increase in the diversity and complexity of ecosystems. These energy expansions have also mediated the transformation of key aspects of the planetary environment, which have in turn mediated the future course of evolutionary change. Using energy as a lens thus illuminates patterns in the entwined histories of life and Earth, and may also provide a framework for considering the potential trajectories of life–planet systems elsewhere.
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Many thanks to G. Carr, T. Carvalho, D. C. Catling, D. Haydon, T. Goldberg, P. Jarne, A. H. Knoll, E. Kroll, N. Judson, N. Lane, T. Lenormand, G. Lichfield, B. C. T. Mason, O. Morton, J. Rolff, J. Swire, and especially A. Courtiol for helpful discussions and for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. Many thanks to W. F. Martin and T. M. Lenton for insightful reviews that improved the manuscript. Figure 1 was drawn by graphic designer F. Zsolnai, many thanks.
The author declares no competing financial interests.
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Judson, O. The energy expansions of evolution. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0138 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0138
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