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A decade of insights into grassland ecosystem responses to global environmental change


Earth's biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms. A synthesis of results from ten years of a globally distributed, coordinated experiment, the Nutrient Network (NutNet), demonstrates that species diversity promotes ecosystem productivity and stability, and that nutrient supply and herbivory control diversity via changes in composition, including invasions of non-native species and extinction of native species. Distributed experimental networks are a powerful tool for tests and integration of multiple theories and for generating multivariate predictions about the effects of global changes on future ecosystems.

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Figure 1: The NutNet collaborative experiment tests the interactive factors and feedbacks determining grassland biodiversity and productivity.
Figure 2: The spatial and environmental range of the >100 sites participating in the NutNet project.


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We thank each of the researchers who have contributed data and ideas to the Nutrient Network (, Supplementary Table 1 lists contributing sites (2007–2016). Grants to E.T.B. and E.W.S. from the National Science Foundation (NSF-DEB-1042132, NSF-DEB-1234162), and the Institute on the Environment (DG-0001-13) supported parts of this work. J.B.G. was supported by the USGS Ecosystems and Climate and Land Use Change programmes.

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E.T.B. conceived and drafted the manuscript; J.B.G., W.S.H., A.S.M. and E.W.S. contributed to writing.

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Correspondence to Elizabeth T. Borer.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

List of Nutrient Network contributing sites. (PDF 248 kb)

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Borer, E., Grace, J., Harpole, W. et al. A decade of insights into grassland ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0118 (2017).

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