Phytoplankton photosynthesis is a critical flux in the carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide fixed globally on an annual basis and fuelling the productivity of aquatic food webs. However, rapid evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming remain largely unexplored, particularly outside the laboratory, where multiple selection pressures can modify adaptation to environmental change. Here, we use a decade-long experiment in outdoor mesocosms to investigate mechanisms of adaptation to warming (+4 °C above ambient temperature) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in naturally assembled communities. Isolates from warmed mesocosms had higher optimal growth temperatures than their counterparts from ambient treatments. Consequently, warm-adapted isolates were stronger competitors at elevated temperature and experienced a decline in competitive fitness in ambient conditions, indicating adaptation to local thermal regimes. Higher competitive fitness in the warmed isolates was linked to greater photosynthetic capacity and reduced susceptibility to photoinhibition. These findings suggest that adaptive responses to warming in phytoplankton could help to mitigate projected declines in aquatic net primary production by increasing rates of cellular net photosynthesis.
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This study was supported by a grant from the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2013-335) awarded to G.Y.-D, A.B. and N.S., and an NERC grant awarded to S.P. and G.Y.-D. (NE/M003205/1).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Schaum, C., Barton, S., Bestion, E. et al. Adaptation of phytoplankton to a decade of experimental warming linked to increased photosynthesis. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0094 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0094
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