Understanding the processes that are driving variation of natural microbial communities across space or time is a major challenge for ecologists. Environmental conditions strongly shape the metabolic function of microbial communities; however, other processes such as biotic interactions, random demographic drift or dispersal limitation may also influence community dynamics. The relative importance of these processes and their effects on community function remain largely unknown. To address this uncertainty, here we examined bacterial and archaeal communities in replicate ‘miniature’ aquatic ecosystems contained within the foliage of wild bromeliads. We used marker gene sequencing to infer the taxonomic composition within nine metabolic functional groups, and shotgun environmental DNA sequencing to estimate the relative abundances of these groups. We found that all of the bromeliads exhibited remarkably similar functional community structures, but that the taxonomic composition within individual functional groups was highly variable. Furthermore, using statistical analyses, we found that non-neutral processes, including environmental filtering and potentially biotic interactions, at least partly shaped the composition within functional groups and were more important than spatial dispersal limitation and demographic drift. Hence both the functional structure and taxonomic composition within functional groups of natural microbial communities may be shaped by non-neutral and roughly separate processes.
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We thank M. Chen for help with the molecular work. We thank A. L. Gonzalez and A. MacDonald for discussions and comments on our paper. We thank T. Benevides for helping with the absorption measurements. S.L. acknowledges the financial support of the Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia. S.L. and M.D. acknowledge the support of Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC). V.F.F. is grateful to the Brazilian Council for Research, Development and Innovation (CNPq) for research funds (Pesquisador Visitante Especial, PVE, Research Grant 400454/2014-9) and productivity grants. S.M.S.J. acknowledges the post-graduate scholarship provided by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ). J.S.L. acknowledges the financial support of Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES). We thank M. P. F. Barros, A. R. Soares, J. L. Nepomuceno and their research groups of the Nucleus of Ecology and Socio-Environmental Development of Macae (NUPEM/UFRJ) for proving field and laboratory assistance during the samplings.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Louca, S., Jacques, S., Pires, A. et al. High taxonomic variability despite stable functional structure across microbial communities. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0015 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-016-0015
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