Speciation can be gradual or sudden and involve few or many genetic changes. Inferring the processes generating such patterns is difficult, and may require consideration of emergent and non-linear properties of speciation, such as when small changes at tipping points have large effects on differentiation. Tipping points involve positive feedback and indirect selection stemming from associations between genomic regions, bi-stability due to effects of initial conditions and evolutionary history, and dependence on modularity of system components. These features are associated with sudden ‘regime shifts’ in other cellular, ecological, and societal systems. Thus, tools used to understand other complex systems could be fruitfully applied in speciation research.
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P.N. was supported by a University Research Fellowship from the Royal Society of London and the European Research Council (Grant NatHisGen R/129639); J.L.F. from grants from the National Science Foundation (USA) and the United States Department of Agriculture; and S.M.F. by NSF DEB award #1627483. For comments on earlier versions of this manuscript, we thank a graduate class on speciation at the University of Notre Dame and N. Bierne. We also thank N. Bierne for prompting the development of Box 1. R. Ribas drew all the figures.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Nosil, P., Feder, J., Flaxman, S. et al. Tipping points in the dynamics of speciation. Nat Ecol Evol 1, 0001 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-016-0001
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