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Climate wealth borrowing by countries since 1950

An integrated assessment model calibrated on past economic and climate development is used to estimate the historical time-series of the social costs of carbon from 1950 to 2018. The extent to which individual countries reduced global wealth through their fossil and industrial-process carbon dioxide emissions was then assessed.

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Fig. 1: Global mean CWB per-capita.


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This is a summary of: Rickels, W. et al. The historical social cost of fossil and industrial CO2 emissions. Nat. Clim. Change (2023).

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Climate wealth borrowing by countries since 1950. Nat. Clim. Chang. 13, 621–622 (2023).

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