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The increasing relevance of phenology to conservation

Shifts in phenology can impact organism fitness, ecosystem function, and goods and services from nature. Climate change management must better integrate phenology to optimize conservation outcomes as these impacts increase.

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Fig. 1: Many opportunities exist for increasing overlap of conservation and phenology in climate change research.
Fig. 2: Climate change conservation planning approaches, such as climate change refugia, may be improved by integrating phenology data.


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Conversations with P. Levin and K. Pradhan improved this manuscript.

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A.K.E. conceived of the work and led the writing. All authors contributed writing, edits and ideas that shaped the manuscript.

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Correspondence to A. K. Ettinger.

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Ettinger, A.K., Chamberlain, C.J. & Wolkovich, E.M. The increasing relevance of phenology to conservation. Nat. Clim. Chang. 12, 305–307 (2022).

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