A majority of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are preceded by the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM), a dominant coupled ocean–atmospheric mode of variability. How the precursory NPMM forcing on ENSO responds to greenhouse warming remains unknown. Here, using climate model ensembles under high-emissions warming scenarios, we find an enhanced future impact on ENSO by the NPMM. This is manifested by increased sensitivity of boreal-winter equatorial Pacific winds and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to the NPMM three seasons before. The enhanced NPMM impact translates into an increased frequency of NPMM that leads to an extreme El Niño or La Niña. Under greenhouse warming, higher background SSTs cause a nonlinear evaporation–SST relationship to more effectively induce surface wind anomalies in the equatorial western Pacific, conducive to ENSO development. Thus, NPMM contributes to an increased frequency of future extreme ENSO events and becomes a more influential precursor for their predictability.
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Communications Earth & Environment Open Access 20 November 2023
Enhanced joint impact of western hemispheric precursors increases extreme El Niño frequency under greenhouse warming
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Data related to the paper can be downloaded from the following websites: HadISST v1.1, https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadisst/; NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.derived.html; CMIP5 database, https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip5/; CMIP6 database, https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip6/. A detailed reference and DOI for each CMIP6 model are provided in the Supplementary Information. The CAM3.1-RGO model experiment data are available from the corresponding authors on request.
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This work is supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, grant number XDB40030000. F.J. is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2020YFA0608801), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) projects (41876008, 41730534) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2021205). B.G. is supported by NSFC projects (41922039, 91858102) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFA0607001, 2016YFA0601804). W.C. is also supported by CSHOR. CSHOR is a joint research Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research between QNLM and CSIRO. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme, which, through its Working Group on Coupled Modelling, coordinated and promoted CMIP6. We thank the climate modelling groups for producing and making available their model output, the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) for archiving the data and providing access, and the multiple funding agencies who support CMIP6 and ESGF.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Climate Change thanks Jing Ma and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Jia, F., Cai, W., Gan, B. et al. Enhanced North Pacific impact on El Niño/Southern Oscillation under greenhouse warming. Nat. Clim. Chang. 11, 840–847 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-01139-x
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