The data includes: for the power sector, temperature-adjusted electricity trends in Europe10, India38 and the US11; for the industry sector, coal use in industry in China22 and US steel production39; for the surface transport sector, city congestion40, country mobility41, UK42 and US state43 traffic data; for the residential sector, UK smart meter data44; and for aviation, aircraft departures45. Each data point (filled circles) represents the analysis of a full time series and shows the changes in activity compared to typical activity levels prior to COVID-19, corrected for seasonal and weekly biases. These changes along with the nature of the confinement were used to set the parameters in equation (1) in Methods. The data are randomly spaced to highlight the volume of some data streams. Open points represent the mean value among the sample of data points, whereas the whiskers mark the standard deviation from the mean. The plotted violins represent the kernel density estimate of the probability density function for each sample of data points.