Numbers below country names represent the numbers of refineries with reported data. Destination country CI is the estimated emissions intensity associated with all crude refined in that country, including domestically produced and imported crude. The global volume-weighted-average CI estimate is 40.7 kg CO2eq bbl−1. For clarity, only countries with ≥0.2% of global oil refining and production share are mapped (see Supplementary Table 3 for full details). Countries with white color means either not included in this study or its refining volume is less than the 0.2% cut-off threshold. It is worth noting that destination refining CI and annual absolute refining emissions do not coincide in many cases. When the ranking of highest CI destination countries is compared with that of the rank of countries with the highest total annual emissions, only China and India are in the top 10 in both lists. Some countries (for example, Chile and Slovakia) have high refining CI but low total emissions, while others (for example, Japan and Russia) differ. Interestingly, the US is ranked 12th in terms of destination CI (44.4 kg CO2eq bbl−1) but is ranked 1st in terms of total annual emissions (251.4 Mt CO2eq) in 2015.