Numbers below country names represent the percentage of crude oil refined domestically. Source country refining CI is the emissions intensity associated with refining all crudes produced in that country including any refining of these crudes that occurs in other countries. The global volume-weighted average refining CI is 40.7 kg CO2eq bbl−1. For clarity, only countries with ≥0.2% of global oil refining and production share are mapped (see Supplementary Table 2 for details). Countries with white colored background means either not included in this study or refining volume is < 0.2% cut-off threshold.