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Achieving atmospheric verification of CO2 emissions

The Original Article was published on 13 November 2017

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Fig. 1: The ACC detection protocol.
Fig. 2: Probability that a detection will occur on or before every given year for BAU and R0 scenarios using ACC as the detection criterion.
Fig. 3: Modelled ACC trajectories for BAU and R0 scenarios.

Data availability

All data are publicly available at

Code availability

R code for the current study is available on GitHub at


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We thank D. Victor for useful discussions. R.F.K. thanks the Oxford Martin School for hosting a sabbatical that helped to support this work.

Author information




A.S. and R.K. jointly conceptualized the detection protocol and wrote the manuscript. A.S. obtained the data, developed the algorithm, wrote the software, conducted simulations and performed the data analysis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Armin Schwartzman.

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Peer review information Nature Climate Change thanks Yi Yin and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Supplementary Information

Explanation of methods and supplementary analysis results.

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Schwartzman, A., Keeling, R.F. Achieving atmospheric verification of CO2 emissions. Nat. Clim. Chang. 10, 416–417 (2020).

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