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Achieving atmospheric verification of CO2 emissions

The Original Article was published on 13 November 2017

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Fig. 1: The ACC detection protocol.
Fig. 2: Probability that a detection will occur on or before every given year for BAU and R0 scenarios using ACC as the detection criterion.
Fig. 3: Modelled ACC trajectories for BAU and R0 scenarios.

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All data are publicly available at

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R code for the current study is available on GitHub at


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We thank D. Victor for useful discussions. R.F.K. thanks the Oxford Martin School for hosting a sabbatical that helped to support this work.

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A.S. and R.K. jointly conceptualized the detection protocol and wrote the manuscript. A.S. obtained the data, developed the algorithm, wrote the software, conducted simulations and performed the data analysis.

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Correspondence to Armin Schwartzman.

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Peer review information Nature Climate Change thanks Yi Yin and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Explanation of methods and supplementary analysis results.

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Schwartzman, A., Keeling, R.F. Achieving atmospheric verification of CO2 emissions. Nat. Clim. Chang. 10, 416–417 (2020).

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