Westerly driven, long-range transportation of dust particles in elevated aerosol layers (EALs) is a persistent phenomenon during spring and summer over the Indian subcontinent. During the snow accumulation season, EALs transport substantial amounts of dust to the snow-covered slopes of high-mountain Asia (HMA). Here we use multiple satellite-based estimates to demonstrate a robust physical association between the EALs and dust-induced snow darkening over HMA. Results from a fully coupled atmosphere–chemistry–snow model support these observations, revealing across HMA a signature of increasing dust-induced snow darkening with surface elevation that peaks near 4,500 m. Moreover, the influence of dust on snow darkening is greater than that of black carbon above 4,000 m. Our findings suggest a discernible role of dust in the observed spatial heterogeneity of snowmelt and snowline trends over HMA and highlight an increasing contribution of dust to snowmelt as the snowline rises with warming.
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MODIS data are available from https://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataprod/. The CALLIPSO dataset used in this study can be downloaded from http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/. The AURA-OMI dataset used in this study can be downloaded from https://omisips1.omisips.eosdis.nasa.gov/. The MERRA-2 reanalysis data used in this study can be downloaded from http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/FTPSubset2.pl. All processed data used in this study are archived at https://portal.nersc.gov/project/m1660/yang560/hma_dust/
WRF-Chem is a community model freely available from https://github.com/wrf-model/WRF/releases. The WRF-Chem script modifications used in this study are archived at https://portal.nersc.gov/project/m1660/yang560/hma_dust/. Fig. 1a,b was prepared using ARC-GIS software. All other figures were prepared using MATLAB software. Code for data analysis and figure creation can be obtained from the corresponding author upon request.
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This research was primarily supported by the NASA High Mountain Asia Project. NASA Applied Sciences 2017 GEO Award 80NSSC18K0427 supported part of this work. C.S. thanks M. Alaa for his inputs and help with ARC-GIS for plotting Fig. 1a and B. C.S. is also partially supported by the New Faculty Initiation Grant project number CE/20-21/065/NFIG/008961 from IIT Madras. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. Part of this work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with NASA.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Sarangi, C., Qian, Y., Rittger, K. et al. Dust dominates high-altitude snow darkening and melt over high-mountain Asia. Nat. Clim. Chang. 10, 1045–1051 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-00909-3
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