The fate of Madagascar’s rainforest habitat


Madagascar has experienced extensive deforestation and overharvesting, and anthropogenic climate change will compound these pressures. Anticipating these threats to endangered species and their ecosystems requires considering both climate change and habitat loss effects. The genus Varecia (ruffed lemurs), which is composed of two Critically Endangered forest-obligate species, can serve as a status indicator of the biodiverse eastern rainforest of Madagascar. Here, we combined decades of research to show that the suitable habitat for ruffed lemurs could be reduced by 29–59% from deforestation, 14–75% from climate change (representative concentration pathway 8.5) or 38–93% from both by 2070. If current protected areas avoid further deforestation, climate change will still reduce the suitable habitat by 62% (range: 38–83%). If ongoing deforestation continues, the suitable habitat will decline by 81% (range: 66–93%). Maintaining and enhancing the integrity of protected areas, where rates of forest loss are lower, will be essential for ensuring persistence of the diversity of the rapidly diminishing Malagasy rainforests.

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Fig. 1: Current and future predicted fragmentation class of the eastern Madagascar rainforest.
Fig. 2: Environmental suitability for ruffed lemurs for the present and the 2070s.
Fig. 3: Deforestation and the combined effects of deforestation and climate change on ruffed lemur habitat suitability for the Makira focal area.
Fig. 4: Deforestation and the combined effects of deforestation and climate change on ruffed lemur habitat suitability for the CAZ focal area.
Fig. 5: Deforestation and the combined effects of deforestation and climate change on ruffed lemur habitat suitability for the COFAV focal area.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request. Historical forest cover data were obtained from ref. 20. Climate coverages were obtained from ref. 82.

Code availability

All code required to reproduce the results is available at


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We thank the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development of the Government of Madagascar for issuing the numerous research permits to undertake the field surveys underpinning this study and for sharing protected area data. We also thank the University of Antananarivo, MICET/CVB/ICTE and GERP for facilitating the application process for several of these permits and for logistical support. We thank the many conservationists, researchers and research assistants from around Madagascar, without whom data collection would have been impossible, and we are grateful to the following for funding: Alan Graham Fund in Global Change; Animal Behavior Society; American Society of Primatology; The Aspinall Foundation; Beauval Nature; CERZA Conservation; Cleveland Metroparks Zoo; Douroucouli Foundation; Edna Bailey Susan Fund; European Association for Zoos and Aquariums; The Explorers Club; Hunter College of the City University of New York; Idea Wild; International Foundation for Science; IUCN ‘SOS - Save Our Species’; J. William Fulbright Foundation; Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund; National Geographic Society Conservation Trust (C280–14, C021–17), Waitts grant (no. W96-10); National Science Foundation DDIG (BSC-0725975), SBE-IBSS PRF (1513638); The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Peoples Trust for Endangered Species; Primate Action Fund; Primate Conservation, Inc.; Primate Society of Great Britain; PSC-CUNY; The Rufford Foundation; Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute; Schlumberger Foundation; Sophie Danforth Conservation Fund; Stony Brook University; Wilford A. Dence Memorial Fellowship for Wildlife Science. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Author information




T.L.M. conceived the idea, designed and developed the project, acquired, analysed and interpreted data and wrote the paper. A.B.S. adapted the deforestation model, constructed the niche model and wrote the paper. A.N.M., E.A.B., C.B., R.D., S.F., Z.F., C.D.G., S.M.H., M.I., R.L.J., S.J., T.K., S.M.L., E.E.L.Jr, A.M., H.N.T.R., H.L.L.R., J.R. and O.H.R. designed and developed the project, acquired and interpreted data and contributed to the manuscript text. A.L.B. conceived the idea, designed and developed the project, acquired and interpreted data and wrote the paper.

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Correspondence to Andrea L. Baden.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary methods, results, Tables 1, 2 and 4 and Figs. 1–7.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Table 3

Change in suitability by protected area.

Supplementary Table 5

Mean predicted suitability by scenario and elevational band.

Supplementary Table 6

Sampling for Varecia.

Supplementary Video 1

Animation illustrating forest loss between 2015 and 2080 under relaxed (left) and strict (right) forest protection scenarios.

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Morelli, T.L., Smith, A.B., Mancini, A.N. et al. The fate of Madagascar’s rainforest habitat. Nat. Clim. Chang. 10, 89–96 (2020).

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