Near-term climate predictions — which operate on annual to decadal timescales — offer benefits for climate adaptation and resilience, and are thus important for society. Although skilful near-term predictions are now possible, particularly when coupled models are initialized from the current climate state (most importantly from the ocean), several scientific challenges remain, including gaps in understanding and modelling the underlying physical mechanisms. This Perspective discusses how these challenges can be overcome, outlining concrete steps towards the provision of operational near-term climate predictions. Progress in this endeavour will bridge the gap between current seasonal forecasts and century-scale climate change projections, allowing a seamless climate service delivery chain to be established.

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The authors form the scientific steering group of the WCRP GC-NTCP. The GC-NTCP is one of the international initiatives promoting and advancing science and standards for the coordinated provision of near-term climate predictions at global scale. T.O.K. was supported by the CSIRO Decadal Forecasting Project (https://research.csiro.au/dfp). S.P. is supported by the National Environmental Science Program’s Earth Systems and Climate Change Hub. D.M. and W.A.M. were supported by the BMBF projects RACE II (D.M., grant no. FKZ:03F0729D) and MiKlip II (W.A.M., grant no. FKZ: 01LP1519A). The work of K.M. was partly supported by the BMBF within the nationally funded project ROMIC–SOLIC (grant no. 01LG1219) as well as within the frame of the WCRP/SPARC SOLARIS-HEPPA activity. A.A.S. and D.S. were supported by the Joint DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate under grant no. GA01101. E.H. was supported by the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the SMURPHS project (grant no. NE/N006054/1). F.D.R. was supported by the H2020 EUCP (grant no. GA 776613) project.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors jointly supervised this work: Yochanan Kushnir, Adam A. Scaife.

  2. Deceased: Raymond Arritt.


  1. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA

    • Yochanan Kushnir
  2. Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Exeter, UK

    • Adam A. Scaife
    •  & Doug Smith
  3. College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK

    • Adam A. Scaife
  4. Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

    • Raymond Arritt
  5. European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK

    • Gianpaolo Balsamo
  6. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada and Climate Change, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    • George Boer
  7. ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys, Barcelona, Spain

    • Francisco Doblas-Reyes
  8. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain

    • Francisco Doblas-Reyes
  9. National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK

    • Ed Hawkins
  10. Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan

    • Masahide Kimoto
  11. World Climate Applications and Services Division, Climate Prediction and Adaptation Branch, Climate and Water Department, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    • Rupa Kumar Kolli
  12. Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, USA

    • Arun Kumar
  13. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany

    • Daniela Matei
    •  & Wolfgang A. Müller
  14. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany

    • Katja Matthes
  15. Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany

    • Katja Matthes
  16. Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg, Germany

    • Wolfgang A. Müller
  17. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    • Terence O’Kane
  18. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA

    • Judith Perlwitz
  19. Physical Sciences Division, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA

    • Judith Perlwitz
  20. Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    • Scott Power
  21. University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    • Marilyn Raphael
  22. Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan

    • Akihiko Shimpo
  23. WCRP/WMO, Geneva, Switzerland

    • Matthias Tuma
  24. LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

    • Bo Wu


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Y.K. and A.A.S. wrote the paper with input from all other authors. M.T. provided editing, drafting and factual support.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yochanan Kushnir or Adam A. Scaife.

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